What is the Global Peace Index GPI
Global Peace Index: World peace is improving for the first time in five years, but remains at a low compared to the last decade
LONDON, April 23 / PRNewswire / -
The main results
- Ukraine saw the biggest improvement that year, Nicaragua the biggest decline.
- More countries, 106 countries, have reduced their militarization instead of increasing it - continuing a trend that has gone on for decades.
- Since 2008, world peace has deteriorated 3.78 percent, with 81 countries deteriorating and 81 improving, showing that deteriorations in peace levels are generally greater than improvements.
Climate change - the most important facts
- More than 400 million people live in areas with low levels of peace and high risk from climate change.
- In eight of the 25 least peaceful countries, 103 million people are at risk in areas of high climate risk.
- Regionally, Sub-Saharan Africa has the weakest capacity to cope with climate threats, which could exacerbate violent conflicts.
GDP / Economic Costs of Violence - Key Facts
- The economic impact of violence in 2018 was $ 14.1 trillion, or 11.2 percent of global GDP - around $ 1,853 per capita.
- Countries with a very high level of peace on average achieved more than three times the GDP growth per capita compared to the least peaceful countries in the past 60 years.
- In the ten countries most severely affected by violence, the average economic cost of violence was 35 percent of GDP, compared with just 3.3 percent in the least violent countries.
The 13th edition of the annual Global Peace Index (GPI) Report, the world's leading measure of world peace, shows that world peace has improved for the first time in five years. Despite improvements, the world remains significantly less peaceful today than it was ten years ago, with the average level of peacefulness having deteriorated by almost 4 percent since 2008. This year's report contains new research on the possible effects of climate change on peace.
86 countries improved their results in the 2019 report, while 76 countries got worse. Iceland remains the most peaceful country in the world, a position it has held since 2008. At the top of the index are New Zealand, Austria, Portugal, Denmark and Portugal. Bhutan has seen the greatest improvement of any country in the top 20, rising 43 places in the past 12 years.
Afghanistan is now the least peaceful country in the world, replacing Syria, which is now the second least peaceful country. South Sudan, Yemen and Iraq make up the remaining five least peaceful countries. It is the first year since the index was created that Yemen was among the five least peaceful countries.
The GPI report, produced by the international think tank Institute for Economics & Peace, is the leading global benchmark for the peacefulness of countries around the world and contains the most comprehensive data-driven analysis to date on peace, its economic value, trends and the development of peaceful societies. The report covers 99.7 percent of the world's population and uses 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from renowned sources to create the index. These indicators are divided into three key areas: ongoing conflict, security and protection, and militarization.
Steve Killelea, Founder and Executive Chairman of the IEP, explains: "Although peace has improved in the 2019 GPI, deeper analysis finds a mix of positive and negative trends. As the conflicts that have dominated the last decade, such as Iraq and Syria, are beginning to subside, are in Yemen, Nicaragua and in Turkey has created new conflicts that have caused the bottom ten countries of the index to fall more than the global average - which has increased global inequality in peacetime ".
Four of the world's nine regions have become more peaceful in the past year. The greatest improvement in the level of peace took place in the Russia and Eurasia region, followed by the Middle East and North Africa. In both regions, Ukraine and Syria, the number of deaths from conflict has decreased. The decline in the number of conflict deaths is reflected in a decline in the number of deaths from terrorism.
Two of the three GPI areas have worsened over the past decade, with persistent conflict worsening 8.7 percent and security worsening 4 percent. Contrary to popular perception, however, the militarization sector has seen an improvement of 2.6 percent since 2008. The number of armed forces per 100,000 people has decreased in 117 countries, and military spending as a percentage of GDP has decreased in 98 countries and increased in only 63 countries.
Steve Killelea said: "Many of the trends recorded over the past decade highlight the complexities of world peace. Good news is that state sponsored terror has decreased significantly over the past decade, with 62 countries improving their scores while only 42 deteriorating. But incarceration shows the opposite trend: 95 countries are increasing their incarceration rate while 65 countries have improved. The US has cut its incarceration rate by 11 percent over the past decade, but it still has the second highest incarceration rate in the world. "
The report also analyzes the security risks of climate change. An analysis of the report found that an estimated 971 million people live in areas of high or very high exposure to climate hazards, of which 400 million people live in countries with low levels of peace. Ten percent of these people, or 103.7 million, live in areas of countries that are in the bottom 25 countries on the GPI: South Sudan, Iraq, Libya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, North Korea, Nigeria, and Mexico.
The economic impact of violence on the global economy decreased in 2018 for the first time since 2012, falling 3.3 percent to $ 14.1 trillion. That's 11.2 percent of global economic activity, or $ 1,853 per person. The greatest improvement was seen in armed conflicts, as conflict intensity decreased in Syria, Colombia and Ukraine. The economic impact of terrorism, which fell by 48 percent from 2017 to 2018, was also significantly reduced. For the ten countries most affected by violence, the average impact was equivalent to 35 percent of their GDP, compared with just 3.3 percent in the world's most peaceful countries. Syria suffered the most at 67 percent.
- The peacefulness in Asia Pacific improved in all three GPI areas over the past year, largely driven by the increase in UN peace funding and the reduction in violent demonstrations and deaths from internal conflicts. However, the effects of terrorism have intensified, as have internal and external conflicts. China climbed two places to 110, ahead of Algeria at 111 and behind Djibouti at 109.
- Central America and the Caribbean have deteriorated in all three areas over the past year. Seven countries improved while five countries got worse, but as is typical of breakdowns in peacefulness, the deteriorations were greater than the improvements.
- Europe, the most peaceful region in the world, got a little more peaceful in 2018 and continued its decades-long trend. Twenty-two out of 36 countries in Europe improved. Europe continues to dominate the top of the index, ranking 17 of the 25 most peaceful countries.
- The peace in Middle East and North Africa, the least peaceful region in the world, has improved slightly over the past year, based on improvements in 11 countries. Syria is no longer the least peaceful country in the world and the recovery in Iraq has begun.
- The peace in North America has deteriorated over the past year, recording the second largest regional deterioration. Canada showed a slight improvement in the overall score, but the deterioration in the United States was much larger and was affected by increases in the murder rate, violent crime, and political instability. While Canada is still one of the ten most peaceful countries in the world, the US fell four places to 128th place - between South Africa and Saudi Arabia.
- During most of it Russia and Eurasia is less peaceful than the world average, last year it was one of three regions that improved in all areas of the GPI, resulting in the largest regional improvement. Russia fell one place to 154th, ahead of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 155th and behind Pakistan at 153rd.
- Only Colombia, Uruguay and Chile improved in last year South Americawhile the rest of the region, another eight countries, deteriorated. Venezuela is now the least peaceful country in South America, and Brazil recorded the fifth largest decline in the world.
- In South asia the average value has improved over the past year due to improvements in Nepal, Pakistan and Bhutan. However, the region still ranks second lowest, just ahead of its neighbor MENA.
- In Sub-Saharan Africa For example, 27 of the 44 countries in the region deteriorated in their peacefulness, weakening all three areas of the GPI, while 12 of the region’s 23 indicators improved and eight worsened.
More information is available at www.visionofhumanity.org.
NOTES TO THE EDITORS The full GPI report, video material and interactive maps can be found at: www.visionofhumanity.org Twitter: https://twitter.com/GlobPeaceIndex (# GlobalPeace19) Facebook: www.facebook.com/globalpeaceindex
Information on the Global Peace Index (GPI)
This is the 13th edition of the GPI. The world's leading benchmark for the peacefulness of countries around the world is created by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and uses 23 individual indicators to measure ongoing domestic and international conflicts, social security and protection, and militarization in 163 countries.
Information on the Institute for Economics and Peace
The IEP is an international, independent think tank dedicated to shifting the world focus to peace as a positive, achievable, and real measure of human well-being and progress. The IEP has offices in Sydney, Brussels, New York, The Hague, Mexico City and Harare.
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