What is a print ad
How does the effect of print advertising differ from digital advertising? Investigation of physical and psychological influencing factors
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Problem
1.2 Objective of the work
2 Theoretical Foundations
2.1.1 Development of marketing over time
18.104.22.168 Print advertising
22.214.171.124 Digital advertising
2.1.3 Advertising Effect
2.2 influencing factors
2.2.1 Physical influencing factors
126.96.36.199 Haptic factors
188.8.131.52 Gustatory factors
184.108.40.206 Olfactory factors
220.127.116.11 Visual factors
18.104.22.168 Auditory factors
2.2.2 Psychological influencing factors
22.214.171.124 Trust and Credibility
2.3 Findings and approaches to date
3 Empirical review
3.1 Research interest and aim of the study
3.2 Deriving hypotheses
3.3 Operationalization of the variables
3.4 Structure and implementation
3.4.1 Research design
3.4.3 Stimulus material
3.4.4 Examination process
3.4.5 Questions and level of measurement
3.5 interfering variables
4.1 Evaluation of the pretest
4.2 Overview of the data set
4.3 Hypothesis testing
4.4 Critical reflection
4.5 Implications for Practice
5 Conclusion and Outlook
List of figures
List of tables
"Paper arouses emotions, pixels ensure efficiency" (Wolfangel, 2013)
The extinction of the printed version of a newspaper or a book has long been predicted. The media speak of upheaval and that daily newspapers will disappear completely in the long run. The present work is dedicated to this long-running discussion about the persistence or extinction of the print media and focuses on the effects of this debate on marketing. The problem and the aim of the work are explained in more detail below. The structure is then presented in writing and graphically.
Already reported in 2012 The world of the fact that almost 100 daily newspapers have disappeared in the last 20 years (WeltN24 GmbH, 2015). Today, 2015, the picture is no different. It is called the so-called Free culture the web is the trigger for this crisis. While 28.76 million newspapers were sold daily in Germany in 2003, the figure was just 22.21 million in 2013 (Statista GmbH, 2015). And this was not a bad year in terms of sales, but rather the result of a continuous downward trend in the newspaper industry. However, the content does not seem to be the decisive criterion. Because while on the one hand fewer and fewer print media are being sold, on the other hand the circulation of the electronic version offered on the Internet is steadily increasing. In 2005, 21,121 editions were sold. Nine years later there were almost 28 times as many, namely 590,000 (Statista GmbH, 2015).
As a result, the question arises whether print advertising will become less and less interesting in the future as a result of the degressive print trend. A study by the Central Association of the German Advertising Industry (ZAW e.V.) from 2013 shows that although the net income of the newspaper advertising medium has fallen across all forms, the daily newspaper is still in second place after television, far ahead of the advertising medium Online and Mobile stands. In 2013, more than twice as much income could still be recorded via the daily newspaper instead of the electronic version.
The men's clothing brand strellson has also been named in a case study Success concept print advertising, published by the Association of German Magazine Publishers (VDZ) in 2001, examined the necessity of print advertising in the marketing mix in more detail. The brand was able to positively record proof of the effectiveness of the innovative print campaign and the resulting corporate success. With a total of 17 advertising and creative prizes, the idea was rewarded, which does not show the usual models but strange, unknown, multicultural people. This clearly shows that despite the apparent digital flood, the successful concept of “brand positioning through print communication. . . surprisingly good results [can show] ”(VDZ Verband Deutscher Zeitschriftenverleger e.V., 2001, p. 30).
1.2 Objective of the work
The phenomenon described above forms the basis for the present work. While numerous studies in the past have devoted themselves to the difference between texts on paper and those in digital version with regard to the learning effect, the focus of the present work is on how marketing will be shaped by media upheaval in the future. The primary consideration is whether the previous findings can be transferred to marketing. Accordingly, a print ad would have to show advantages over digital advertising, the strength here lies in both the physical and psychological influencing factors. An increased credibility in connection with trust and a better memory performance are to be named here as the main characteristics.
The research question that is in focus and will be answered at the end of the thesis is therefore: Can print advertising survive in the future? Does the feel of the printed print advertisement lead to increased confidence in the content? The factors for the survival of classic marketing in the mobile age are listed and critically reflected. So it is questionable whether previous findings are not long out of date and the “generation always on “(Frees & van Eimeren, 2014, p. 383) texts and advertising are almost exclusively presented digitally and this leads to a changed perception. For this purpose, the physical and psychological factors influencing the advertising effect are examined in more detail. The aim is to name the success factors of the respective form of advertising following the empirical part and thus to be able to give recommendations for action for science and practice.
In order to achieve the research goal just defined, the selected procedure is explained below. The work is divided into five chapters. First, the objective of the work and the procedure are shown, then chapter two shows the theoretical basics. The reader is introduced to the topic, creating a theory-based concept for the outgoing question. The relevant terms of marketing and especially advertising are defined, the influencing factors are explained and then the previous findings round off the chapter. Chapter three then covers empirical research and tests the solution raised in the previous chapter in practice. Finally, in chapter four, the aim is to be able to give implications for practice based on the interpretation of the results. Finally, chapter five summarizes the presented results of the research work and finally gives a conclusion and an outlook for science.
Figure not included in this excerpt
Illustration 1: Approach in the research work (own representation)
2 Theoretical Foundations
As already described in chapter 1.1, the discussion about print versus digital advertising is far from over, so the theoretical basics are explained in this chapter. The relevant terms should then be clear. In addition, a provisional solution to the question raised is provided from the previous findings, which is then empirically verified in the following chapters.
People encounter advertisements for products or services on a daily basis. In the morning when opening the newspaper, on the way to work in the car radio, on the Internet when researching work-related content, during the lunch break in the form of posters and outdoor advertising, at the bus stop and even in the evening while relaxing on the couch in front of the TV. Eliminating advertising seems like an insurmountable challenge. "In everyday life, advertising is omnipresent, of multifaceted complexity and in many-layered forms and networks" (Brecheis & Siegert, 2010, p. 17).
Definitions for the term advertising exist in large numbers. Behrens (1963) provides a suitable one for this work, which states that “Werbung. . . [is] an intentional and compulsory form of influencing, which is supposed to induce people to fulfill the advertising goals ”(quoted from Sieglerschmidt, 2008, p. 23). Advertising is therefore a means of communication that addresses many recipients and emanates from a recognizable sender. It is therefore a matter of so-called mass communication. All definitions on the subject of advertising have two distinctive features: on the one hand, an advertisement is a communication process and, on the other hand, aims to change one's experience or behavior (Sieglerschmidt, 2008).
What aspects of the term advertising The following subsections show exactly how it came about that the need to advertise products developed. The origins of marketing go back a long way. The fact that a brand has to draw attention to itself and is in competition with its competitors, who often offer very similar products or even imitate their own, only developed later. Nowadays it is often the case that advertising in particular contributes to whether the consumer develops an intention to purchase a certain product or a certain brand or not. And it is precisely this intention to buy that is essential for companies. It should therefore be noted that a positive customer attitude towards a product alone is not enough to ensure the company's success.
Dealing with the issue of print versus digital advertising does not seem to be foolhardy for the time being. However, the question arises as to whether the previous findings can simply be transferred to advertising and which influencing factor is decisive for the continued existence of print advertising. Usually only a little text is shown in an advertisement, since excessive information overload confuses or even scares the consumer. In addition, advertising is perceived differently than reading text, which is intended to pass on a large amount of information. The need to transfer these findings to marketing is becoming increasingly important in the digital age. How it came about that marketing experts had to deal with the targeted advertising of products is shown in Chapter 2.1.1, which shows the development of marketing over time.
2.1.1 Development of marketing over time
The principle of the exchange of goods has been shaped since human existence. In order to ensure survival, it was necessary from the beginning of mankind to exchange raw materials and goods. This principle can still be found today in simple or complex exchange processes and determines people's everyday lives. The fact that an exchange product has to be actively advertised has only developed over time.
In the 1960s the term marketing was disseminated in German-speaking countries (Meffert, Burmann & Kirchgeorg, 2015). Due to the ever increasing meaning of the term, there are countless definitions today that are becoming more and more comprehensive and for a long time no longer see marketing as a mere measure to promote sales. A definition that applies to this work is provided by Kotler, Keller and Bliemel (2007), according to which “Marketing. . . a process in the economic and social fabric through which individuals and groups satisfy their needs and desires by creating, offering and exchanging products and other objects of exchange of value ”(p. 11). The change from the seller to the buyer's market was decisive for the development of the first advertising ideas, because in the buyer's market supply exceeds demand. Advertising is therefore becoming increasingly important. The question here is whether and to what extent technological developments, in addition to economic change, also require further development of marketing.
As a way out of the difficult situation, many companies advertise their products with consistent labeling to create a distinctive brand world, because this differentiation and demarcation from other brands emphasizes the unique selling point. The competition is currently hardly carried out via the products. Similar products have long had comparable properties and can hardly be distinguished from one another. The trend towards the individualization of products, especially in the design process, will in the long term mean that every customer can design their own product. Therefore, the competition between the competing brands is shifting more and more to the communicative level. The ideas for promoting a brand are consequently becoming more and more innovative, individual, extraordinary and complex.
Advertising today encompasses a wealth of possibilities to achieve marketing goals. In general, a distinction is made between quantitative and qualitative goals. The application serves to achieve both target values. Primarily, however, the brand image and the attitude towards the product should be improved or strengthened, i.e. the psychographic, qualitative goals, as these influence the economic goals. Because a consumer who has a positive attitude towards a product or who has even built brand trust in it is more likely to buy it than something that appears strange to him. In the ideal case, the loyalty is so great that the rational weighing of possible alternatives is switched off and emotion alone decides on the purchase. "The pursuit of a satisfied and loyal customer base has meanwhile developed into an objective of the highest priority for most companies" (Becker, Homburg & Koschate, 2005, p. 1395). Because, as already said, the brand and the values it represents often mean more than the product itself.
This phenomenon means that marketing management has to deal with the question of which application is most useful and consolidates the image with the customer. The possible forms of advertising are now subject to a dynamic that is barely comprehensible for both the customer and the marketing manager. The following chapter therefore defines the terms relevant to the present work and distinguishes the area of print and digital advertising to be examined from other methods.
Not all print advertising is the same; for many consumers it is unclear which areas exactly belong to this term. However, it is more clear to understand the forms of digital advertising. "With the forms of advertising, different communication-political activities as well as the respective associated communication instruments have to be explained. . . "(Rempel, 2014, p. 5). It is important to start from a uniform understanding, which is why the two discussed advertising media are differentiated from one another below.
126.96.36.199 Print advertising
Print advertising is one of the classic communication tools and is sometimes the most popular way of promoting products. “Of course, the history of print advertising begins with the invention of printing” (Geffken & Kalka, 2001, p. 16). Arab merchants brought printing ripe to Europe as early as 1200 AD. Since then, however, not only has the type of printing developed, but also the fields of application. As already mentioned, printing only became interesting for marketing later. Due to this long history, there are correspondingly many views as to which advertising media are to be understood as print advertising. Based on Kroebel-Riel and Esch (2004), print advertising includes advertising messages that appear in printed form in appropriate media. The focus here is on the visual transmission of product information and advertising messages. Inserts, brochures, catalogs, leaflets and advertisements in magazines can be cited as examples. The focus of the present work is on advertisements in magazines and catalogs. Inserts and brochures need to be examined separately and provide sufficient research material for further work (Reiss & Steffenhagen, 2007). Posters are also not considered in this research design and, according to more recent definitions, belong more to the form of outdoor advertising, even if in everyday language, poster advertising is often referred to as print advertising.
188.8.131.52 Digital advertising
Phenomena such as the globalization of the economy or technical progress repeatedly challenge the market-oriented management of companies and offer marketing new potentials to spread advertising messages. So also “the digitization of the information and communication sector and the convergence of multimedia-capable information, distribution and telecommunication systems” (Silberer, 1999, p. 178). For about two decades it has been the internet that has offered endless possibilities. "Depending on the analysis, the proportion of online advertising should already be above cinema, radio and outdoor advertising" (Kalka, 2009, p. 29), which shows that the medium On-line is no longer to be seen only as a supplementary opportunity to address a small target group, but as an independent medium.
Digital, often also called electronic advertising, therefore comprises advertising messages that are distributed via electronic media. This also includes radio and television advertising. But this is the primary focus in this work I nternet examined as an advertising medium.This can be reached via many end devices, such as smartphones, tablets or laptops, and is in direct competition with print advertising precisely because of the possibility of permanent access. Especially here, due to the constant further development, there is always new potential for the dissemination of advertising messages. Superficially, the effect of the digitized form of print advertising is being questioned.
Studies have shown that the memory of the content of the advertisement is better with the printed version. Nevertheless, companies can hardly avoid the possibilities of the Internet. Nowadays it is almost unthinkable to distribute an advertisement exclusively in print and not electronically over the World Wide Web. Precisely because Internet consumption by consumers is progressively developing and in 2014 an average daily use of the Internet of 166 minutes was measured. That's just under three hours a day. The so-called generation always on in total even comes to 248 minutes a day, i.e. over four hours (Frees & van Eimeren, 2014). As a result of these measurements, the question inevitably arises whether there is still time for print advertising?
2.1.3 Advertising Effect
In order to understand which factors influence the processing of advertising and how it comes about that different forms of advertising produce different results for consumers, it must be clear how advertising affects people. “This is exactly where advertising impact research comes in. An interdisciplinary sub-science of market research that makes use of business administration, psychology, sociology and communication sciences ”(Lehrian, 2010, p. 5).
With regard to the advertising effect, there are already many models today. Among other things, important theories of Prof. Dr. Kroeber-Riehl, who became known as the founder of the Institute for Consumption and Behavioral Research at Saarland University. Together with Prof. Dr. Gröppel-Klein has already published some important reference works on consumer behavior (Kroeber-Riel & Gröppel-Klein, 2013).
In addition, Petty and Cacioppo (1986) offer with the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion important findings on the processing of information and subsequent changes to settings. The central message of this model is that persuasive communication can be processed via two routes, the central and peripheral route. Depending on which route is taken, there is a stable or unstable change in setting.
In the present work no specific model of the advertising effect is deepened, but from the multitude of information, those that provide an answer to the research question are examined more closely.
At the beginning of all models is the perception of the communication message. According to the AIDA model, which can be traced back to Elmo Lewis, advertising messages must be consciously perceived in order to have an effect. The stage model of advertising impact, which is an integral part of today's marketing practice, divides “the impact of advertising into different partial effects” (Seebohn, 2011, p. 5). As early as 1898, Lewis divided the advertising effect in the AIDA formula into Attention, Interest, Desire (desire to buy) and Action (transaction). As a result, it is the “goal of all advertising measures. . . first of all ”(Seebohn, 2011, p. 5) to attract attention, regardless of the form in which the advertisement is presented. Because this is the only way to intend to buy.
However, according to current research in neuropsychology, this model is out of date. Despite the active use of the model in practice, it is no longer assumed that the process is linear, but that feedback is also possible. It is still questionable why these new findings have not yet found acceptance in practice. The critical consideration of neuromarketing and the insufficient examination of the possibilities of apparatus-based measurement processes could be an explanation. In any case, studies show that not only conscious attention leads to an effect, but also unconscious attention and especially the addressing of emotions. This is proven by studies from current brain research, an example of which is the study by McClure and colleagues, which is taken up in Section 184.108.40.206. This shows that the emotionalization of strong brands leads to the fact that the rational weighing of alternatives is often deactivated.
Figure 2 shows the process of processing advertisements based on Kroeber-Riel. The perception of advertising is therefore divided into activating and cognitive processes. The interaction of both factors leads to an image of the advertised product and thus ultimately to an intention to buy or to turn it away. Situational influences such as the design of the point of sale (POS) or product availability are the final factors that determine the decision
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Figure 2: Sub-processes of advertising impact (Source: based on Kroeber-Riel & Gröppel-Klein, 2013, p. 52; Meffert, Burmann & Kirchgeorg, 2015, p. 715)
The process shown can be determined by other factors. Research comes to more and more recent results that question or supplement the theory put forward by Kroeber Riel and Gröppel-Klein. Findings from neuromarketing show, for example, that strong brands such as Coca-Cola lead to cortical relief in the brain and the cognitive level of information absorption, processing and storage is largely deactivated.
“When people see their favorite brand, the activations in those areas of the brain that are used for thought are reduced. At the same time, brain areas are activated which regulate intuitive decisions and in which cognitive and emotional processes are integrated ”(Scheier, 2008, p. 306).
The phenomenon described is not a coincidence, but a result of how people perceive advertising and brands. Two systems work in the brain, the autopilot and the pilot. While the autopilot, the implicit system, perceives more than 11 million bits, the pilot, the explicit system, only perceives about 40 bits. Bits are information units or sensory impressions. How an advertisement works depends on the environment and the stimuli surrounding it. To illustrate this, using the example of the eyes, it can be said that around 10,000,000 bits are implicitly perceived via the visual sensory channel, but only 40 in the explicit system. The sense of touch also shows clear differences. 1,000,000 pieces of information are implicitly recorded here, while only five units are recorded explicitly. Advertising, emotions and brand images are all processed by the highly efficient autopilot. The explicit system on the other hand carries out cost-benefit analyzes and works much more slowly. A really good advertisement therefore unfolds its effect in the implicit system (Scheier, 2008).
If you think of the different ways in which print and digital advertising are recorded, it can be assumed that advertisements are processed differently in different media. While a printed display appeals to the visual, haptic and olfactory senses, the digital version offers advantages in the acoustic area.
To date, the literature has provided an almost intangible background knowledge that is constantly being expanded through new methods of research into advertising effectiveness. It is therefore essential to limit the possible influencing factors. The following chapter shows the most important and, at the current point of view, the most well-founded influencing factors on the physical and psychological levels.
2.2 influencing factors
As previously made clear in Chapter 2.1, numerous factors have an influence on the effectiveness of the advertising. The more advertising media develop over time, the more complex the possible influencing variables (determinants) on perception and processing become. "Checking the effects, the success or even the efficiency of an advertising campaign is not very easy in practice" (Zurstiege, 2015, p. 94); an all-encompassing list of all possible factors would therefore lead too far in this work. Therefore, those are explained in more detail, which particularly clearly make a difference between the print advertisement and the digital advertisement. Following this chapter, previous findings from the literature are presented. Several studies have already been devoted to the topic. A presentation of previous results therefore seems interesting and useful.
The control of the success of the marketing instruments used requires a regular survey of the central variables. The influencing factors therefore not only play a special role as target variables, but also as control variables (Grunwald & Hempelmann, 2012). How the different sizes affect the consumer is of particular interest for marketing. Studies have already shown several times that there is a difference between the processing of the printed advertisement and the electronic advertisement. The focus of research work carried out so far is on so-called recall and recognition test results. It is examined in which medium an unsupported and supported memory, a distinction is made between pure memory and actual knowledge, can be better proven (Garland & Noyes, 2003; Jones, Pentecost & Requena, 2005; Narayan, Obregon, Sundar & Uppal, 1998). The print ad achieved better recall values, whereas the recognition values cannot show any significant difference. But why is this so? Which influencing factors lead to the fact that unsupported memory is better in print advertising? The following chapter is intended to explain these questions in order to explain the lasting success of print advertising and the research question Can print advertising survive in the future? Does the feel of the printed print advertisement lead to increased confidence in the content? then answer.
In general, a distinction is made between three major influencing factors when examining buyer behavior. The physical, psychological and social determinants have an influence on buyer behavior and are therefore also to be seen as possible influencing factors of a company's communication policy. The social influencing factors are not explained in more detail in this thesis, rather the examination of the physical and mental Variables play a crucial role. The meaning of the sensory stimuli from advertising media is examined in the following section.
2.2.1 Physical influencing factors
"Physical influencing factors are material (physical) stimuli, which mostly represent marketing instruments (product, price, communication, distribution) that are used by the provider to specifically influence buyer behavior" (Grunwald & Hempelmann, 2012, p. 19 ). The core of this research is communication policy. The trigger for a purchase decision is already set when the advertisement reaches the consumer. Neuromarketing has found that the effect of an advertisement is greatest when as many senses as possible are addressed. In addition to the tactile or haptic perception of a product, it is also possible to address it in other ways. Here there are possibilities of visual, auditory, olfactory and gustatory perception. This chapter explains which of these senses can be used effectively in advertising.
Since the individual and differentiated addressing of customers is becoming more and more difficult in times of mass communication, the way out of this dilemma is to address all five senses if possible. A multi-sensory approach best conveys the values of a brand and, as described in the previous chapter, is better processed by the information processing by the pilot and autopilot than, for example, addressing on a purely auditory level. However, it should be noted that the meaning of the senses can vary depending on the industry (Killan, 2010).
220.127.116.11 Haptic factors
Probably the most important sense that is in focus in this work is that sense of touch. Haptics are one of the five senses and, according to studies, are becoming increasingly important in the digital age. Not only the product itself is noticeable. The type of packaging already appeals to the haptic senses. If you think back a step further here, tactile contact with the product may already begin with the advertisement. Because from the point at which product information is presented, the customer has the feeling of grasping the product, even if he cannot touch the goods at all. Therefore, the sense of touch is of great importance across all industries.
The haptic is generally given more trust and credibility, since the sense of touch or the kinesthetic sense, which consists of the sense of touch and the motor skills, is rarely questioned. Print advertising certainly has its advantages here, but electronic media also try to capture this meaning. The option of zooming in on a digital advertisement creates the feeling of being able to grasp, for example, the fibers of the towel being advertised.
According to Leicht (2015), people's urge for something tangible has increased again, especially recently. Strong brands have picked up on this urge and touch their customers downright. Especially in the audio-visual overloaded world, haptic media ensure increased attention and increased memory of brand contact (Hartmann & Haupt, 2014). This creates trust and credibility, two essential determinants that are responsible for business success.
If you think about what things are recorded with the hands every day, this seems almost self-evident and automated. In marketing, too, more emphasis is often placed on the visual and auditory sensory stimulus instead of the tactile stimulus (Schmitz, 2015). This work wants to change this and make it clear that it is precisely the often neglected haptics that can serve as a decisive control variable.
The AIDA formula, which has already been critically questioned, becomes an ARIVA model: Hartmann and Haupt (2014) describe in their book that haptics are one of the most important but at the same time "the least explored and consciously used meaning in marketing" (p. 50) is. According to the authors, haptics can be addressed in all five dimensions of the newly developed ARIVA formula. The dimensions are Attention (attention and interest), Recall (remembering and anchoring), Integrity (trust and credibility), Value (appreciation and liking) and Action (action and willingness to buy). All of these levels offer starting points for addressing the haptics when designing an advertisement. The haptic effect enhances the effect of the advertisement by drawing attention to the object, regardless of whether this is done explicitly or implicitly. The message to be transmitted is more firmly anchored in the memory and appears more credible (Hartmann & Haupt, 2014).
Mercedes Benz has already implemented the need for tactile contact. The advertising campaign for the Mercedes Arocs construction site truck even received the German Media Prize in the Print category for its good implementation. The special thing about the advertisement was that the magazine insert was made of sandpaper, which every craftsman knows. The slogan for the product was tailored to the presentation. "Tough where it gets rough" was the title of the Mercedes truck. This clearly shows that the tactile sense can already be addressed in the advertisement (Hartmann & Haupt, 2014). This implementation would not have been possible if the display had been presented on a tablet or laptop. Therefore offer themselves in the category haptic influencing variables clear advantages for print advertising.
In 2013, the automobile manufacturer Smart also showed how advertising can be presented in a haptic way. They developed a paper mini-smart from the Fortwo series, which unfolded its shape in the consumer's mailbox like a cardboard display. When the mailbox was opened, a Smart was ready for the customer with the advertising slogan “Find a parking space everywhere” (Hartmann & Haupt, 2014). Such advertising attracts attention, is picked up and is always remembered.
Since the haptic sense makes the decisive difference between the print advertisement and the electronic advertisement, this manipulated variable is focused in the present work. However, in order to be able to assume a complete and comprehensive view of the advertising effect, the other senses must also be analyzed. Therefore, in the following section, those senses are explained in more detail that at first glance can be clearly assigned to one or the other medium.
18.104.22.168 Gustatory factors
Below the gustatory factor is that Sense of taste to understand. It quickly becomes clear here that this sense, unlike the sense of touch, is less cross-sectoral and is increasingly important in the food industry (Killan, 2010). There is a clear connection to the olfactory influencing factors. Since this meaning has so far only been little investigated and has little relevance for the communication policy of marketing, the literature hardly provides any findings here. Studies have shown that, for example, the price of a product has an impact on taste (O'Doherty, Plassmann, Rangel & Shiv, 2008) and that taste in turn has an influence on brand perception.
Strong brands in the food industry such as Coca-Cola manage to get consumers to speak of an unmistakable taste and enjoyment. According to studies, however, it is not the taste of the product itself that makes the product so distinctive, but the pure idea of the unique aroma. McClure, Li, Tomlin, Cypert, Montague and Montague (2004) have shown in their study that no difference in taste between the drinks of the Coca-Cola brand and Pepsi can be identified by a blind test. Not even from the test subjects who describe themselves as Coca-Cola lovers. So it turns out that the brand and the associated emotionalization makes the difference and rarely the gustatory perception.
Implementing the gustatory factors in advertising is not easy to implement. Experience-oriented marketing starts here and tries to incorporate this sense into the advertising of products. It would be conceivable to present the products using small taste samples. This can be implemented at events or trade fairs, but less so with advertisements. Some brands are already offering a small sample of a product to let the taste unfold in the mouth. If you think of a wine tasting, it becomes clear that the taste plays a crucial role in some products. Through reflection and experience, one can come to the conclusion that taste samples can only be inserted in a print medium. Samples cannot be passed on via an online medium. In addition, there are guidelines from the Federal Ministry of Health as well as hygiene and health regulations for placing food on the market.
As this influencing factor consequently relates almost exclusively to the food industry and does not appear to be relevant for the presentation of advertisements, regardless of the medium, further consideration of these variables is not necessary for the present work. This sensory stimulus is certainly not irrelevant for marketing as such, but is not pursued further solely for the reason that it can be transferred to the advertisement in question.
22.214.171.124 Olfactory factors
In the following, this research paper is therefore devoted to the olfactory influencing factors. The term derived from the Latin verb "olfacere" describes the Sense of smell. The human individual is able to “differentiate between 10,000 different smells” (Rempel, 2014, p. 10). Since smells can be perceived as positively stimulating as well as negatively disparaging, in marketing management it is important to ensure that the brand or product is as pleasant and recognizable as possible.
As early as 1932, Laird knew about the importance of the fragrance. In his study How the consumer estimates quality by subconscious sensory impressions he examined the promotional effect of fragrances on purchasing decisions. To this end, he presented women on the one hand stockings without fragrance and on the other hand stockings that were scented with flowers. Those who had been drizzled with fragrance were perceived more positively by the women.
If you think of brands today, for example Hollister or Scotch & Soda Many consumers immediately think of the familiar fragrance. Here a penetrating mark of the brand, which is often already perceived as annoying, can be recognized by the scent. Other brands and retail spaces are following suit. These findings can also be transferred to advertising effectiveness. Even if attempts have recently been made to use fragrances within the electronic media, the advantage here again seems to be on the part of print advertising. "Scented printed products such as scented advertisements in newspapers, magazines, brochures, advertising letters and catalogs" (Rempel, 2014, p. 18) offer the possibility of adding an unmistakable olfactory stimulus to the advertisement. Many book lovers also report that the scent of a new book is something very special. If you use a scent in the advertisement that can be found in the sales room, for example, then the advertisement is immediately recalled.
Fragrances are playing an increasingly important role in marketing. Scent marketing is not only concerned with the scent of the product itself, but also with the design of sales rooms and advertisements. This stimulus is not the focus of this research work, rather it offers a starting point for further research work. However, it should not be disregarded that those test persons who see the advertisement in the catalog also perceive the scent of the medium.
126.96.36.199 Visual factors
The fourth sense is visual perception, i.e. the reception of stimuli through the eye Sense of sight. The visual channel is almost exhausted in marketing communication policy, with the exception of audio advertising on radio. Elaborate designs taking into account the knowledge of color psychology and the targeted use of geometric shapes leave little room for maneuver in both print and electronic advertising.
Up until a few years ago it was still possible to attribute advantages to print advertising due to the quality of the advertisement, this has been balanced out by the continuously improving technical possibilities. Screens are getting bigger and higher resolution, so that hardly any differences can be measured. It is even questionable whether a change is taking place here and whether the electronic medium will overtake the printed version. With a tablet it is already possible to zoom in very close to the product so that the customer can see tiny details. The statics of the print advertisement could become a disadvantage in the long term. In addition, in the digital world there is sometimes the possibility of viewing the product in a 360 degree view.
When people are asked which sense is the most important to them, the answer is often the visual sense, which is why advertising and marketing for products in general are often visual. The advantages of print advertising for orientation in the medium itself are not unknown to the makers of online media either. Due to the topography of a book or magazine, readers of print media can better remember the position of the advertisement in the overall context. For example, in the upper right corner (Ferris, 2013). This is, among other things, the reason why electronic media are visually more and more adapted to the print version. In some cases, the printed catalog and the electronic version do not differ from one another at all and are, from a purely visual point of view, identical. This is seen as a prerequisite in the present work. In order to be able to compare the two media with one another, the advertisement must look exactly the same.
188.8.131.52 Auditory factors
The ultimate sense is that Sense of hearing. Many brands have managed to make their products recognizable simply by presenting the sound logo. The so-called Audio branding deals with the targeted use of acoustic noises in marketing. The automobile manufacturer BMW, for example, is known for its particularly good acoustic performance, which in 2013 even received the “coveted Red Dot Award” (Steiner, 2014, p. 93). The modern and dynamic identification feature is often only processed subconsciously by the consumer, but it leads to recognition when the acoustic sensory stimulus is presented again. One can therefore also speak of an acoustic business card (Steiner, 2014). The brands Telekom and Langnese send similarly well-known acoustic recognition signals, with the latter especially the noise when eating the ice cream M agnum is known.
When applying these findings to the research question, it becomes clear that in this chapter electronic advertising has an advantage over print advertising. Noises can also be added to print media, for example greeting cards that play a song when the medium is opened, but this has not yet been implemented in advertisements. For electronic catalogs there is the possibility of generating an advantage here, even if this has not yet been implemented. However, what was also taken from print advertising in electronic newspapers and catalogs is the noise that is made when turning a page. Here, too, it becomes clear again that the electronic medium largely tries to implement the charms of a print advertisement.
In conclusion, it can be stated that the physical influencing factors of an advertisement are very diverse. The present work focuses on the five senses, which are becoming increasingly important in modern, multi-sensory marketing. More and more experts advise to include as many senses as possible in the advertising of products in order to reach the customer in different ways. It becomes clear that for the research question Can print advertising survive in the future? Does the feel of the printed print advertisement lead to increased confidence in the content? especially the tactile factor explained at the beginning plays a decisive role.
In addition to the physical influencing factors, a large number of other variables play a role when it comes to how advertising affects the consumer. In the following chapter, the most important psychological influencing factors are therefore subjected to a reflection.
2.2.2 Psychological influencing factors
In contrast to physical variables, “psychological influencing factors are. . . on the other hand, variables that are inside the buyer, and therefore not observable, ensure that stimuli are mentally processed into judgments and decisions ”(Grundwald & Hempelmann, 2012, p. 20). One can also speak of organism variables here. An advertising message is picked up via the sensory organs, i.e. via the physical variables described above. These are then psychologically processed into an opinion - for example the opinion that the advertised product is good or bad, important or unimportant.
As Figure 2 has already shown, the influencing factors can be divided into emotional or activating and cognitive variables. Figure 3 shows which variables belong to the psychological influencing factors, for example. Here it is shown once again that the social factors also play a role in addition to the physical and psychological variables. However, these are not examined in more detail here, as this would be too extensive. The people included in the subsequent study all come from one cultural area and therefore have a comparable social environment.
Each of the psychological variables requires its own investigation and provides research material for numerous papers. Satisfaction, for example, is a downstream determinant and requires personal experience with the brand or product. According to Grundwald and Hempelmann (2012), satisfaction is to be seen as the state of a target / actual comparison and can therefore only be examined later. For this reason, this chapter only lists those that allow relevant statements to be made regarding the difference between print advertising and electronic advertising and that are of great importance for companies. It is important to note that an isolated consideration of individual psychological influencing factors is seldom possible, as these are interdependent.
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