How can I reverse metabolic damage

Jacob's ragwort Senecio jacobaea L.

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1 Bavarian State Office for the Environment Bavarian State Agency for Agriculture Management of problem species No. 1 Jacob's ragwort Senecio jacobaea L. Family: Asteraceae The native Jacob's ragwort inhabits meadows, pastures and roadsides. Ingestion of the poisonous plant can lead to symptoms of poisoning or, in rare extreme cases, death. Grazing, which avoids open ground, as well as cutting during full bloom, enables a successful reduction to agriculturally used areas. Most of the statements also apply to the ecologically similar rocket-leaf ragwort (Senecio erucifolius). The poisonous Jacob's ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) can become populations in meadows and pastures and is a serious health risk for horses and cattle (Photo: Annemarie Radkowitsch). What is problematic about the species? The Jacob's ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) and other ragweeds, also known as ragweeds, are critical, poisonous grassland plants because of their poisonous pyrrolizidine alkaloids, to which horses and cattle are particularly sensitive. Ingested alkaloids are broken down into the actual toxins in the liver, which leads to irreversible liver and metabolic damage (Roth et al. 2012). It is also an enrichment poison. This means that the effect is cumulative with the long-term ingested dose, which can lead to fatal poisoning of grazing animals. Horses are particularly sensitive to the alkaloids, while cattle and especially sheep or goats react less to the poisons. Ragwort poisons can also be relevant for human health, depending on the amount consumed, if contaminated salads, teas or herbal mixtures are consumed by masses. Due to their high bitter content and the resulting unpleasant taste, ragweeds are usually spurned by animals on pasture areas. However, especially inexperienced young animals, it can happen that they ingest ragweeds. The aversion to ragweeds can also decrease if there are not enough more attractive forage crops on the

2 pastures are available. The plant is then eaten out of food shortages. The main problem is that the content of alkaloids is not broken down in the preservation of feed in hay and is only very limited in silage. Due to the mixing and the covering of the odor, especially with silage, the animals can no longer select the ragweeds, which means that they are contaminated with the toxins. Even if acute, fatal poisoning is very rare, the feeding of contaminated feed can lead to chronic poisoning that is difficult to detect (Schweinsberger disease). Description Jacob's ragwort is a biennial to perennial species that is 30 to 120 cm in size and overwinters with a rosette. This recedes during the flowering period between the end of June and September. The numerous golden yellow flower heads standing close together in one plane each have a diameter of 1.5 to 2 cm. The central tubular florets are usually enclosed by 13 ray florets. The green inflorescence consists of 13 bare bracts with black tips that lie against the inflorescence. After blooming, around 70 seeds develop per head, some of which are provided with flying and adhesive hairs. The variable leaves, which smell unpleasant when rubbed, are severely divided (lyre-shaped pinnate), have leaflets protruding at right angles and an enlarged end lobe. The Jacob's ragwort can be easily mixed with the rocket (Senecio erucifolius). The 30 to 120 cm high Jacob's ragwort is a yellow blooming sunflower at the top end with numerous tubular flowers and ray florets as well as leaves that are increasingly divided up on the stem (Photo: Andreas Zehm). be confused. Reliable characteristics of the rocket ragwort are 3 to 8 bracts clearly protruding from the flower heads and a horizontal, underground creeping instinct of the perennial perennial. Since both species are similar in ecology, habitat and toxic effects, the statements on management apply to both species. The ragweeds should not be confused with meadow herbs such as the tall, yellow-flowered St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), the tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) or the meadow pippau (Crepis biennis). Habitat and ecology Jacob's ragwort is distributed from Europe to North Africa and Asia to Siberia. In Germany it is one of the more common, widespread native species. In Bavaria it occurs in all natural areas on disturbed, open soils. Jacob's ragwort grows mostly on nutrient-rich and base-rich, humus-rich, sandy to clayey, moderately acidic soils from the plain to m above sea level. Sunny and rather dry locations with sandy to loamy soils are preferred. It does not occur in fields due to its development cycle of several years, but can often quickly colonize fallow fields from the seed bank. It grows mainly in disturbed smooth oat meadows as well as in poorly maintained, extensive meadows, pastures and set-aside areas, especially if the sward is destroyed in places by the step of grazing animals or by cultivation. If there is sufficient soil moisture, the plant can also be found in patchy poor grasslands, acidic dry grassland, as well as in warm edges, on the edges of forests or in sparse forests. Man-made habitats such as embankments, creeks, roadsides and roadsides, fallow land, storage areas and gravel pits are also settled, provided they do not have a tightly closed sward. Once established, the ragwort can migrate to neighboring areas. It sticks

3 Ragwort flower with the central tubular flowers and surrounding leaf-like ray flowers as well as the green, adjacent bracts (Photo: Andreas Zehm). on agricultural machines, maintenance devices, cars, trains, clothing as well as fur and feathers and can therefore be easily carried away. The spread of the wind depends on the main wind direction and the wind strength during the period of seed ripening, with the risk of spreading significantly lower at distances of over 50 m. In the soil, Jacob's ragwort builds up a seed potential with seeds that can germinate for up to 25 years. It can regenerate from this if light falls on the open ground due to gaps in vegetation or changes in use. Outside of this, ragweeds should be tolerated in manageable quantities. Prevention Preventive measures are of central importance for the regulation of Jacob's ragwort and, if used early, help to avoid an excessive occurrence. Before regulating, it must therefore be checked what purpose the area has and whether it poses a risk for adjacent usable areas. On commercial grassland, a tolerance limit of one plant per 10 m² should not be exceeded. Almost zero tolerance is appropriate on pasture areas, especially on standing pastures for horses. Adapted pasture and fallow land management (tilling, mechanical pasture maintenance) are effective in preventing the excessive spread of Jacob's ragwort (Lüscher et al. 2005, Suter 2007a, Suter 2007b, Siegrist-Maag et al. 2008). It is crucial to avoid injuries to the sward and thus open areas in the ground and to control the ways in which it spreads. Among other things, it serves as a food crop for many insect species, some of which are highly specialized in this species. In addition to the blood bear (Tyria jacobaeae), which mainly feeds on Jacob's ragwort, it serves many other insects as fodder and nectar plants, especially in July when few other species bloom (Kassebeer 2016). Therefore, regulation should focus on agricultural land and its surroundings. The Jacob's ragwort mainly inhabits dry, extensively mowed or grazed meadows with open ground. It is a typical component of the meadow flora (Photo: Andreas Zehm).

4 or regional sowing to make the seed bank more difficult Management 1. Management of meadows / mowing grassland on nature conservation areas without fodder production No measures are necessary provided that these do not pose a risk of spreading to neighboring farms (Huckauf et al. Both regeneration and This is the most effective way of minimizing post-flowering (Photo: Aiko Huckauf). Also post-flowering. When mowing before flowering, an intensive post-flowering develops through numerous side shoots or the plants survive as a rosette for another year, only to bloom all the more profusely in the following year Too early mowing thus leads to an increase in the coverage of Jacob's ragwort (as rosettes). If necessary, conditions at the time of cutting must be observed. Areas without nature conservation requirements can be plowed up after mowing with deep plowing (observe permit requirement). If this is not possible, should be done by repeated shallow cultivation g emerging ragwort seedlings are destroyed in order to reduce the seed potential near the surface before re-sowing. Approved herbicides can be used in the case of very high stocking densities and insufficient prospects of success for alternative methods. The conditions of use according to the instructions for use and any existing management requirements (such as cultural landscape or contractual nature conservation program) must be observed. With both mechanical and chemical control, the sward must be closed by sowing with seed mixtures that are adapted to the location and use. Individual plants that emerge after a regulation must be removed mechanically in a targeted manner. 2. Management of pasture areas Reliably avoid overgrazing, step damage or scar damage (no buoyancy in unfavorable weather) Regular pasture maintenance with post-mowing of hot spots, clearing of the clippings, overseeding or reseeding of gaps in crops with local or usable seeds (on nature conservation areas without previous soil treatment and without grasses with clumpy growth) an adapted fertilization for a species-rich, balanced ratio of grasses and herbs as well as a multi-layered growth

5 The native Jacob's ragwort is part of the food web of meadows and a source of nectar for numerous flower visitors (Photo: Andreas Zehm). As far as possible, cut out or uproot individual plants manually before flowering. Separate small, individual-rich stands from grazing.These can only be grazed after successful restoration and when the sward is closed again suitable seed mixtures can be renewed. First graze closed, stable turf again. 3. Traffic routes / routes, roadside strips, construction, settlement and compensation areas Avoid spreading through building material, excavated soil, cuttings and mowing equipment: Clean equipment, dispose of contaminated material safely If there is a risk of seeds flying onto neighboring commercial grassland or pasture areas (distance less than 50 m) Regulation by regular mowing before the seeds ripen is advisable. A cut at least three times a year before seed formation displaces the ragwort in the medium term, as long as there is a closed plant population, it prevents colonization from the soil seed supply or through the influx of seeds. Recycling or disposal When transporting the clippings, no parts of the plant (or seeds) should get into the landscape. Therefore, the material should be transported in closed vehicles / covered trailers or as packaged clippings in sacks or bales of foil. Smaller quantities of ragwort should be disposed of with the residual waste; Otherwise, transport to waste incineration or special composting plants suitable for problematic waste with hot rotting processes or suitable biogas and fermentation plants. Proper composting or fermentation will kill the seeds. Disposal on the dung heap, the garden compost or via conventional green waste collection points is not suitable. In the regions, local authorities provide separate collection points. Grassland vegetation contaminated with ragwort may neither be fed to one's own animals nor offered for sale as animal feed. Contaminated mowing material is not used as litter, since ingestion by livestock cannot be safely avoided and the spread of seed material via manure cannot be ruled out. Depositing contaminated material in open spaces or in the forest is not permitted. Literature KassebeeR, C. (2016): Recording of the phytophagous insects living on Jacob's ragwort in Schleswig-Holstein. Unpublished report on behalf of the State Office for Agriculture, Environment and Rural Areas Schleswig-Holstein: 138 p. Huckauf, a. et al. (2017): Dealing with Jacob's ragwort, avoiding, tolerating, fighting. Font no. LLUR SH Natur 25: 70 S. LüscheR, a. et al. (2005): Ragwort species in meadows and pastures: Prevention, recognize early, fight early. FAL conference,, weed control: 4 S. Roth, L. et al. (2012): Poisonous plants Plant poisons: occurrence, effect, therapy. 6th edition, Nikol Verlagsgesellschaft: 1122 p. Siegrist-maag, s. Et al. (2008): Reaction of Jacob's ragwort to cut. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 15 (7): Suter, M. et al. (2007a): Senecio jacobaea and management practice: What are the links? Grassland Science Europe 12: Suter, M. et al. (2007b). Can the occurrence of Senecio jacobaea be influenced by management practice? Weed Research 47: Imprint Publisher: Bavarian State Office for the Environment (LfU) Mayor-Ulrich-Straße Augsburg Bavarian State Agency for Agriculture (LfL) Vöttinger Straße Freising Authors: Annemarie Radkowitsch, Dr. Andreas Zehm (LfU), Klaus Gehring (LfL) Contributors: Aiko Huckauf, Janna Ruge, Marcel Ruff, Tabea Zeyer Contact: LfU, Referat 51, Dr. Andreas Zehm Status: June 2018 BAYERN DIREKT is your direct line to the Bavarian State Government. You can get information material and brochures, information on current topics and internet sources as well as information on authorities, responsible bodies and contact persons at the Bavarian State Government by calling or by.