CLAT 2015 paper was leaked

Berlinische. Researches. Investigations. Texts and. Society of Friends of Berlin. Fritz. Boring. Berlinisch "of the German Academy.

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2 Berlin research texts and studies on behalf of the «Society of Berlin Friends of the German Academy, edited by Fritz Behrend, Second Volume Berlinisch» By Agathe lasch Verlag by Reimar Hobbing, Berlin SNZ6I

3 A History of Berlin Language By Agathe L «sch Verlag by Reimar Hobbing, Berlin SW6I

4 All rights reserved W. Büxenstein, Berlin SW 48

5 Table of Contents Foreword VII. List of Frequencies Abbreviations X I. Introduction i 11. The oldest inhabitants of Berlin language history up to the 16th century 34 IV. The development of Berlin language "64 V. On vocabulary 140 VI. Grammar of Berlin language" 215 comments on Chapter I 310 Chapter II 313 Chapter Chapter IV 324 Chapter V 338 Chapter VI 340 Dictionary 343

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7 Foreword Anyone who takes on a task like the one I was given with this book, to scientifically substantiate the history of Berlin, for which preparatory work is almost completely absent, and at the same time for a further, non-expert readership, for those Berliners interested in their home history To represent, he will have to be clear that his work is ungrateful. He must expect concessions from both groups for whom he writes, and concessions from both groups. Guild philology will miss the detailed phonetic description here; also, in the reproduction of the sounds, more emphasis has been placed on easy legibility than on consistency; Partly for typographical reasons, of course. Furthermore, the grouping is chosen everywhere as simply as possible, accessible to the layman. On the other hand, the generally interested readership will probably be looking for some explanations of words, some individual forms, where I had to be content with a few characteristic examples, the scope of the book is so much larger than originally planned, and occasionally probably different from that in the historical context just find a form that is familiar to the reader. The first history of Berlinic is supposed to awaken the scientific work that has so far not taken care of Berlinic; above all, it is supposed to show the problems and arouse participation in a unique linguistic history, which, however, in its individual traits also for the Linguistic history of other cities is instructive. I am also aware that I have to destroy some ideas that have become dear to me. The old amateurish view of Berlin has become common property in many cases, and its repeated statements are considered facts. But nothing is so ungrateful as having to shake firmly rooted beliefs, as has often had to happen in this book.

8 The By the detailed list of words at the end I hope to have made it easier to find certain words or speech phenomena. For me it was initially most important to determine the historical background of the Berlin language history. A second possible way of looking at things, which is more psychological, will have to be reserved for later work, if the volume of the volume is not expanded even further. But it has to presuppose the philological and linguistic basis as a foundation, which for that reason had to precede it. What conclusions it comes to without this foundation is shown, for example, in the essay on the Berliner Platt "in the An, nals der Naturphilosophie 14, 175. At the same time, I wanted to use this history of a city dialect to show the various rings in which it is built up, to show that a schematic enumeration of the sound forms, the vocabulary, which knows nothing about the influence of external experiences on the development of language, requires a smooth undisturbed series from the beginning to the present, accepts the entire vocabulary as autochthonous or, in the colonial country, uncritically as originating from the settlement period At best it can only be preliminary work, a collection of material for a local linguistic history. One does not object that a linguistic history is easier for Berlin than for another city. As far as I overlook the linguistic history of other cities, the opposite will be the case in cities without the break as shown in Berlin, or with richer medieval ones Lore and history. For Hamburg z. B. I did the rehearsal several times in seminar exercises. Exceptionally interesting results will have, if they come to the right editor, Lübeck's linguistic history. The same applies to just staying here in the north for Lüneburg and countless cities with a great past. According to the original plan, a collection of samples of Berlin texts from the most important periods discussed was to be added to the book. (From the Berlin city book, 14th century; Chancellery German of the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular pieces with echoing traces of the spoken language;

9 from the marginal notes of Friedrich Wilhelm I .; from letters from Frederick II; from Moritz's grammar; from Voss> The ladies, watch out in the theater.) They had to be put back because of the size. Hopefully they can find their place in a later edition. My first scientific work was directed towards my hometown Berlin. It is a particular pleasure for me that I am now able to show my thanks and my devotion to my native city, even far from Berlin. A certain difficulty was connected with the fact that I could not write the book on the spot myself. The local day-to-day literature, which is often only available in libraries and which was only to be looked for for philological purposes, could not be exhausted in the way I would have liked during a temporary presence in Berlin, especially in more than one case with the courtesy of the senior officials the difficulties, which the lower officials opposed to special treatment, was lifted again. On the whole this makes no factual difference, only this or that better quote, a characteristic evidence, could have been found; Otherwise I had at my disposal the collections that I had compiled from archives and libraries in twenty years since my first attempts in the Berlin-speaking area. Archive Director Dr. I have to thank Kaeber for the willing kindness with which he sent me several manuscripts from the Berlin City Archives for a long period of time for convenient use in the local State Archives. I would also like to thank the Prussian State Library, the City Library and the Märkisches Museum in Berlin, along with other institutes. Above all, I have to thank the library of the Association for Hamburg History in Hamburg, whose holdings offered me the most valuable help, as well as the state and university library in Hamburg, which willingly arranged the very numerous book orders for me at any time. Professor Dr. Agathe Lasch.

10 List of the most common abbreviations I. Linguistic terms. At this point one only finds the resolution of the abbreviations and the explanation of only those expressions that are not explained in the text. The indication of the page number, where the expression is explained in the text, is to be looked for in the dictionary. as .: Old Saxon (i.e. the oldest period of Low German, previously known from monuments of the 9th century Iheliand). elbofäl .: elbosifälisch. hd .: high German (ahd .: old high German; mhd .: middle high German 1st, 2nd, 13th, 14th centuries); nhd .: new, high German). m d .: Central German; (0 m d .: osimittel, German). Meißn .: Meißnisch, see obs. mhd .: Middle High German. Oral: Middle Low German (the Low, German in the period from the 13th to the 16th century). nd .: Low German (as., mnd., and., pd.). nnd .: nennlowdeutsch, low german in modern times Iplattdentschi. pd .: Low German, obd .: Upper German (the southern high, German dialects, such as Bavarian, Austrian, Swiss). obs .: Upper Saxon (obs., Meißnisch, obs., thür.). ofäl .: Osifälisch (the Low German areas between the Elbe and Weser), 0 md .: Osimitteldeutsch. sih .: stl .: voiced. unvoiced. II. Abbreviated literature cited. Listed here are only the titles that are usually mentioned in the text in the short form, but not those that can be easily supplemented from the literature references in the text, even if they are occasionally cited briefly. Farewell book: handwritten minutes of arbitration agreements, etc. Exit of the 16th, beginning of the 17th century in the Berlin City Archives. Bear: the well-known Berlin home magazine. Berl. Mon .: Berlin monthly journal, ed. v. Gedike and Biester, i7bzff. Berl. Stb .: Berlin city book, see chap. 111 note i. Bödiker: Principles of the German language in speaking and writing. Cologne a. d. Spree See Frisch. Brandenburg: Maas, How to speak in Brandenburg, in: Nd. Ib. 4, 28ff. Brandenburgia: Archive or monthly newspaper of the Brandenburgia "Society for Local Lore of the Province of Brandenburg in Berlin. Brendicke: i. Dr. Hans Brendicke, Der Berliner Volksdialekt, SchrVsGß Der Berliner Volksdialekt, ibid Berlin vocabulary at the time of Kaiser Wilhelm I. Based on the collections of the senior preacher C. Kollatz and the retired captain Paul Adam, edited by Dr. H. 8., ibid. 33. Braunschw. Resident: see SchrVfGß. 48, 49 “Cl .: Clauswitz, see Berliner und Cologne City Book, chapter 111, note 1.

11 'Fid .: Fidicin, Hisiorisch, diplomatic contributions to the history of the city of Berlin. 5 vol. Berlin ibz7ff. In Volume i Berlin City Book and excerpts from the Kölner Stb., See chap. 111 note i. Fr. 111, I .: Friedrich 1., see chap. IV note 37, 48. Fr «II: Frederick the Great, see chap. IV Note 47. Mrs. Wilh. I .: see chap. IV note 46. Frisch: I. L. Frisch, 1st revision of Bödlker's grammar 1723; 2. Dictionary, see chap. IV note 40. F. z. b. n. pg .: Research on Brandenburg and Prussian history, LeipzigiBBBff. Graupe: Bruno Graupe, De äialecto marckjca quaeztiuneulae äuae. ViBB. Berlin Heynatz: 1. Letters concerning the German language, Berlin; 2. German language teaching for use in schools. Berlin handbook for the correct preparation and assessment of all types of written records. Berlin ed. See chap. IV Note 51. Helnsius: 1. German language teaching, specially adapted for use in schools, 1797 ff .; in the increased number of new editions Neue deutsche Sprach, teach iboiff. 3rd ed. 1817; 2. Small theoretical, practical German language, teaching. Berlin 1804, 2nd increased edition 1810, 13th edition 1834; 3. Volkstüml. Dictionary, the German language. ibibff. Hirt, Weigand: German dictionary, 5th edition of Weigand's dictionary, edited. of shepherd. Combing invoices: Berlwer combing invoices 1504 ff., Hand, in writing in the Berlin city archive, see Chap. 111 Note 1. König: Attempt to give a historical description of the royal seat of Berlin, 1792 ff. Kretschmer: Paul Kretschmer, Wortgeographie der Deutschen Slang. Göttingen Küster: Old and New Berlin Lasch, written language: History of the written language in Berlin up to the middle of the 16th century. Dortmund 1910, see chap. 111 Note 1. Regional Studies: Regional Studies of the Province of Brandenburg, ed. v. Serious peace! and Robert Mielke. So far, Vol. I IV. in Vol. IV. Mielke, Folklore; in Vol. 111 Merbach, Literary History Development of the Province of Brandenburg; Bile, education, science and upbringing. M. F .: Märkische researches, ed. from the Association for the History of the Mark Brandenburg, Vol. 120, ff. Mnd. Grm .: Lasch, Middle Low German grammar. Halle MVfGB .: Announcements from the Association for the History of Berlin. Moritz, letters about the Brandenburg dialect. Berlin 1781; 2. German language, teaching for women. Berlin 1782; 3. The difference between the accusative and the dative case. Small writings concerning the German language. See also chap. IV Note 53. Myllus: (SOIPUB OoQBtitutlOQMN ktarekicarmn.

12 Nd. Ib .: Low German Yearbook, yearbook of the Association for Low German Language Research, ib74ff. Nd. Corr .: Low German correspondence sheet, correspondence sheet of the Association for Low German Language Research. PB contributions: Contributions to the history of the German language and Literatu Preuss. Wb .: Frischbler, Prussian dictionary. RB., R. B .: The right Berliner in words and idioms, i. By Hans Meyer 1878, 10th edition, obtained from S. Mauermann Richter: loh. Godfr. Judge, 1st attempt at an expedient German law! writing. Berlin 1780; 2. Critical comments on Mr. Ra Adelung German language teaching for schools, Riedel: Oäex äipiomatinn LraQäeQburßeQziZ. Berlin ff. A: first main part. Schmidt: Jacob Schmidt, (DoUectionuin melliorabiumn Veroluienziuln äeca prima ... Berlin 1727 ff. Schb .: Berlin and Cologne jury books, 1503 ff. Handwritten in the Berlin city archive. Cf. Chapter 111 Note 1. VchrVfGß .: Writings of the association for the history of Berlin, H. 152 Schulenburg, shepherd life: W. v. Schulenburg, the shepherds in a Brandenburg village (archive of the Brandenburgia n) Schulz, foreign dictionary: Hans Schulz, German foreign dictionary Strasbourg star: see 0. Berl. star . Tlantlaquatlapatli (Seyftied), Chronicle of Berlin or Berlinische Merkbarenitäten, 1789 ff. Trachsel: CF Trachsel, Glossary of Berlin words and idioms, eavesdropped on and collected from the people. Berlin ZfdMda .: Journal for German dialects. ZfdWo .: Journal for German word research The older information, examples without an author's name, are transcripts, records (e.g. SchrVfGß. 4, 36 etc.), the countless popular or satyrical magazines E.tde des 18. und Anfang Taken from the nineteenth century, the various pictures from Berlin life, which in the first half of the nineteenth century, in addition to the most famous Glaßbrenner publications, leaflets (especially 1848), folk calendars, e. B. the folk calendar of the Kladderadatsch and the like with ö 2 III. Explanation of some special types. denote vowel length, »: vowel abbreviation, 3: sch. a: the vowel r-sound as in Vata. c: ch as in me. y: the n, loud as in the connection d: ch as in ach. i: g as in Wagen, Ogen. n, m: long m, n.): der <, sound like in nujeln, buje. n, m: syllable n, m>: becomes to. ng. <: originated from.

13 Introduction The historian of Berlin, who, according to the old custom, would like to begin by praising its language form, looks in vain for any classic expressions of the price. Everywhere he comes across disparaging words. Even a writer who is dear to us as a special herald of the Brandenburg and Berlin prehistory, like Willibald Alexis, sees only a jargon here, from the rotten Low German and all the garbage and discarding of the higher social language in such a disgusting way that he composes only in the first Momentary smile aroused, but in the long run offended the ear. "From before, according to him, Angely's attempt to vindicate the Berliner Volks, stage an element of the people," had to fail because he made the mistake of using the Berlin jargon for a volt element " to ... hold: That jargon. (which) .. in the long run troubles the ear, could at least not arouse what it was supposed to do on stage, pure amusement. That should be the purely and naturally educated Viennese dialect Stand up to it! It didn't work / ") Similar judgments are heard from all sides. But Alexis "testimony can stand for many, after all, it contains all the accusations that have been and are made against Berlinic again and again: It is not a folk element, not a dialect, but a jargon; spoiled Low German) some see it, spoiled high , German the others, the third, similar to Alexis, a mixture of Low German and High German, a colorful mixture that cannot be penetrated according to the law, a form that cannot be recorded historically. Such statements do not lead any further, they create the probe purely externally , judge by chance impression, without historical or philological observation. And this is precisely where the core of the underestimation of Berlinic lies. For anyone who recognizes a language form in its development will understand its justification.

The first attempt must therefore be to derive the Berlinic linguistic historical against the confused conceptions just outlined, to examine the development of the language forw. And it will then show its historical condition, the interaction of historical, social, psychological forces that participate in its formation, at the same time that it is not a coarse mixture of phonetic histories, but quite clear, yes, it has become so lawful that the phonetic observation of the older, purer form (which we must take as a basis) gives us the key to the history, which is not as simple as in most rural dialects, but which is all the more interesting.If one asks oneself what the impression is based on, which evokes the rejection everywhere, which one surely has to understand not only as an outgrowth of the traditional unpopularity of everything Berlinish among non-Berliners, the inclination to criticize, also to mockery among Berliners, then perhaps this is the case It should also be taken into account that the High German language form (which was not understood, dialect, not written language), on which Berlinic is based, in Low German pronunciation (see p. 7ff.) with some other traces of Low German, primarily in the vocabulary, could easily make the superficial impression of corruption that is expressed in all judgments. One also saw, especially at a time when philology was inclined to explain linguistic changes through the moment of inertia, e.g. B. in the final -a (a) for -er (liba Vata), in j for ß etc. a letting go. Then the broad Brandenburg pronunciation (this also applies to Berliners who speak written language, who has the same articulation, the same prose rhythm), the distribution of the accent with little modulation to an ear that is used to a different pronunciation, a stronger musical accent, is slightly neglected . For the Berliner himself, however, there was probably something else, a social moment, after the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century (see Chapter IV, p. 122), which had been common in all circles until then, albeit in stages The form of speech by the educated classes was gradually abandoned, focusing on the lower classes

15 limited, more coarse and now as a speech defect ", felt as a social divide, a moment of education. Of course, this was less conscious than in the subconscious. The separation of the two groups was much sharper here than in areas where the dialect was not only Language form of the urban lower class but of the whole surrounding area, the provincial language. This, the language of the whole hinterland, could not elude the upper class, the Hamburg, the Bremen shipowner, the Pomeranian farmer always had to speak Low German in addition to High German, which was dialect as a result, there is never such a danger of becoming pure class language as in Berlin, where the wider landscape did not compensate for the difference in the city population as a whole, and if Willibald Alexis in the cited passage rejects the idea that Berlinish could be used like the Viennese (because in replica of the Viennese Lo kalsiücke, Berlin had just come onto the stage first), so we understand that the Austrian, the Bavarian, the Swabian feel the contrast to the dialect of the lower class less harshly than the Berliner had to feel, because that's where the colloquial language lies of the higher classes always within the limits of the dialect, the approach to the written language is gradual, while in northern Germany a much sharper pronunciation ideal of the artificial language, which is our written language, makes the cut appear much sharper. The resistance expressed by Berliners and non-Berliners is directed primarily against Lautsiand and syntax, which deviate from the written language. In contrast, the colloquial language of the educated circles has retained a considerable number of Berlin words (of various origins). The expressions for the necessities of daily life, the environment, which are only negotiated in the narrowest circle, the domestic one, do not require a general written-language exchange. They remain in the traditional form. So even in family and friends circles, where one can assume an understanding of the local forms, some expressions are kept as familiar, and so every Berliner who otherwise speaks written language has a part, as in the accent, the

16 Intonation, also in the vocabulary. Chapter V will give a more detailed account of this, at this point we will be satisfied with an example: In a letter to Storm (1853; Letters 1, 80 gives Fontane "), Kugler's view that one would give the freezing: Wurm (the forest devil boy) a silver penny or sometimes it doesn't. The first to sing about is prosaic, the second, pathetic (he said, in good Berlin-style, mierig *). " F. therefore translates a Berlin word for the Schleswig-Holsteiner that the Berlin friends needed among each other. As is well known, the number of such words is still very large today, although it has decreased considerably compared to earlier; z. B. Strippe, Schippe, Stulle, Mudschwetter, Yöhre, it pours as if with Mollen "; Games: Zeck, Murmel"; Kitchen plants like Besinge, Bollen "; Animal names like Padde" Adjectives z. B. klatrig "(Varnhagen, Tagebuch 13, 395: the clattery outcome of the Neuchâtel case"), recently: keß, knorke, manoli "(which are already more widespread from Berlin) and many others are also used in familiar language by those who who, according to Lautsiand and syntax, do not speak "Berlin". The words compiled by Trachsel *) (1873) ^) go only a little beyond the vocabulary that was in bourgeois Berlin at the time, and give a picture of how much of the provincial still lives in bourgeois colloquial language "). The definition of vocabulary will often have to be different from that of Lautsiand or even syntax in order to consider Berlinic. Of course, whoever asks about Berlinic "usually does not think of these everyday things. One has got used to understanding Berlinic as something amusing, to identify it with witty cheekiness, with amusing quick-wittedness. Most people only consider it to be an accompaniment to this content, and I'm afraid it becomes difficult for Berlinic as a historical form of language If you like to dress up as a Bajazzo, you don't easily believe in his seriousness. But yes *) Glossary of Berlin words and idioms, B ") You can get a similar picture from Kretschmer, word geography of colloquial language, there here the Berlin etiquette is used.

17 Just as recently poetry and the fine arts have sought to bring the pathetic and tragic behind the amusing "Berlinisch" to a wide audience. We have to begin with some general considerations and explanations, the question of the spiritual type of group whose language we want to consider , as well as a brief indication of what we will summarize under the term Berlin ". At all times in Berlin one heard various forms of German language, which we cannot accept as "Berlin". Since the 14th century (see Chapter IV), under the Bavarian, Luxembourgish, Hohenzollern Margraves and Electors, it was the court language , the administrative language of the government was an imported High German; the citizens of Berlin, however, spoke Low German, like the city administration, which came from the citizen circles. In the (13th) 14th, 15th centuries, the Central Brandenburg-Brandenburg dialect from chapter 111 is Berlin Picture, and clearly distinguishable from the high German court language. But the question of the development of Berlinic is mainly not linked to this Low German language, which faded away in Berlin, but to the language form from which it has been superseded here since the 16th century, the characteristic Lautsiand (Leen Bein, Loom Baum , äauäent thousand,> tt Gott, ik, ville), forms (ilc cierfich may, meins ^ ejen, äe senbwn die Fenster, BekBte you see), through their own syntax (e.g. relationship dative: accusative, word order, etc.) , and its own vocabulary is separated from the written German, with its own intonation, the origin and development of which in more than four hundred years of history will occupy us on the following pages. It is, and the reason for this will come to light in its history, today kfin closed dialect more, less sharply separated from the high German colloquial language, such as a Low German if dialect. The speaker, unless the educated class, they knowingly Berliners "often does not know that or how his style deviates dialectically from the written language, and so, with a fuzzy separation, it has recently become possible that yes

18 Trachsel noticed in 1873 that the same speaker could use Berlin and written German forms side by side. There are therefore (and for other reasons) numerous gradations. What we are treating here as Berlin is of course not the standard Berlin language, which wants to be High German and, e.g. Sometimes against their will, only certain remnants have remained Berlin, but mainly the dialectal form according to the Lautsiand. Of course, we must not take the decomposed language that one now often hears as a basis. It can only be the pure form. We are clear that in many cases it is only an ideal, an abstraction, but we all have it so strongly in mind that all Berlin records follow it, just like a dialect script, a dialect grammar from another area always reproduces a purer ideal form. It is not jargon, it is not spoiled after its origin, it is in its pure original form not a Missingsch, not a mixture of those who want to speak an educated language that they cannot speak, but it has become organic, and what one (e.g. B. Wken, where one wanted to find nd. 0, but hd. K) was seen as a mixture, that is to be understood from its basic form. But it has not, as is usually the case with dialect, slowly evolved into the old ancestral form, but as a newly learned High German dialect developed by a Low German population since the 16th century, as a city dialect without a hinterland, at the same time always threatened by the written language. because it was not far enough away from it in terms of shape and body of language. In various new diversions, be it from above or from below, it has been influenced again and again. In addition, at least recently, something has been added that is nowhere else nearly as relevant for language. Whoever says "Berlin" often does not mean this form, but rather the closely linked content in words and phrases. We have therefore refrained from speaking of Berlin dialect, Berlin dialect, and call it The vocabulary that is was pointed out, claims a special interest. The history of vocabulary that

19 But as we showed earlier in a different context, it does not always match the phonetic part of the history of language, and in addition to the high German Lautgesialt there is a strong Low German echo in the verbal structure for a long time. Nevertheless, the word, guess the older time, is to be assessed no differently than the idiotisms of every dialect. If the history of the word, darling, gives geisies-historical information everywhere besides the political-historical ties, then it is still particularly important for the recent history of Berlinic. *) About the well-known Schusierjungen jokes: Kutzclia, fgkn 3e? wa, ik KutBcka, sinä 3e leäiß? (in a time when single was still forgetting today in Berlin. Meaning empty, free) wa, clenn germinated 80. Or, to cite a self-experienced example, when getting on the tram: Are you going over the town hall? "And the surprising answer of the Schaffners: No, that's up to us! " (although the car drove past the town hall). It is understandable that the clothmakers had a moth fesi, the witty answer to that was the fliegensi "of the linen weavers.

20 and therefore brings some hostility, the easy flammability that hides behind the expression of sobriety and smugness, behind apparent sobriety ", the gift of humor that often brings him over an unpleasant situation with a joke, coarse coarseness"), which for any finer social endeavors, such as those z. B. to the Saxons, had no sense whatsoever. The best representatives that already show that this in itself does not face the actual Kunsiv ability are Schadow and Zelter, whose coarseness, as strange as it was felt in the Goethehaus, but Goethe obviously did well '). Goethes calls the Berliner a bold breed of people, against whom one must have hair on one's teeth, speaks of the surviving Berlin "^). The excessive share that one has taken in words and idioms of the modern age has of course led to the fact that the interest in language has been restricted more and more to this, and the actual form of language, which, in contrast to other dialects, has never enjoyed scientific attention "), has increasingly receded into the background. There was little concern for the history of the language in Berlin, much less than in other cities, where the history and homeland associations also drew the dialect into their circle. The view that Georg Hermann, a poet who feels Berlin so extremely finely, knows so well, once expresses that Berlinic only goes back to the beginning of the 19th century, is probably the one that is widespread. The question has often been raised as to when and by what means this particular species originated and developed, which especially gives the youngest phase of Berlinic a special sound, since when it has been observed. Was the type that Wildenbruch communicates to his Kohne Finke in the Quitzows actually already at the time when the Hohenzollerns moved here? Did the reason for this investment lie in the mentally lively colonial oolk, in which Saxon, Franconian and Slavic blood was mixed, which could never stagnate in the ever new influx? The same population mix was found in other Central Markets and other colonial Low German cities. So it has to be here

21 what made the special political and economic development of Berlin, the struggle for life in the big city, the urge to be poor, renewed resistance from all sides at all times, the rich spiritual stimuli and thus the spiritual liveliness, the especially great Mass suggestion, to name just a few, the feeling of superiority, or, as non-Berliners easily perceive and express it, the arrogance that grew out of the preferred position that Berlin held in the Mittelmark "). But the feeling of Superiority, which is used again and again in all explanations, is certainly not what characterizes the Berliner, rather it is the doubting superiority *) (the lucuging who pretends to be a Berliner is more important than the Berliner who does not provides to be solemn, who for the Iroßkozigen "only has mockery"), the doubting superiority that RM Meyer **) when he describes the Berliner in Fontane's picture as the feeling of the one-eyed man who is conscious of his one-eyedness but must feel like king among the blind. Fontane's words (about his fellow political electors), which Meyer refers to, characterize this contradicting feeling: I saw clearly that, and hardly to believe, my inadequacy, my lack of knowledge! the ignorance of the others was possibly even greater than mine. So I was modestly immodest at the same time. "Because the Berliners are a special breed, love full cars and empty cash registers, are jolly and more clever than all other Leu?" *) The picture that we are trying to paint here cannot be that of the post-revolutionary present, which, in a state of flux, cannot yet be overlooked. It can only be a matter of reproducing clearly recognizable features as they were presented to observers in the 19th century, in the second half of it, around the turn of the century. Therefore, somewhat older examples are chosen everywhere. ") The German Literature of the 19th Century, People's Edition 1912, p. 389.

22 is a song about the trip to Pankow around 1830, on Sundays in the overcrowded car (MfGB. 42, 126). Certainly, one feels more than other people ", but one laughs and jokes about it oneself. Self-esteem gives the Berliner the importance of his city, without actual self-confidence, and on the wider world stage he is too young an upstart with the insecurity of such a thing Nor was his career able to educate him. Certainly he knows and knows everything and praises the linden trees "next to the famous Herrenhäuser Allee *) and the Kreuzberg in view of the Alps, but on the one hand that is pride (as long as it is not generally uneducated) of what has become new and of one's own strength, on the other hand, I believe, precisely an outgrowth of doubt. Those who are fully convinced of their superiority do not have to repeatedly point this out to others. He does not want to be impressed, but he is not sure that his position is sufficiently recognized, so he underlines it. The feeling of superiority in itself is e.g. B. in the Hanseatic cities, which were not subject to any power word of a Fürsien (think of the history of Berlin from the 15th to the 18th century), who were themselves power, much stronger, and once you know the Berlin us! "And that hamburgische mi sounds st al! " put together ^), so in one case one sees more of a parvenu-like, good-natured self, enjoyable, in the other the self-assured feeling of centuries-long superiority that despises all the squeaky and butthen mines.In all large cities, where a large number of people collide and develop spiritually in battle, where new events stimulate the mind, curiosity and criticism every day, funny or amusing occasional remarks are also told, especially when the citizen, as in Berlin, lively takes hold of vividly reproduces. Similar jokes "are made everywhere. Amusing word formations *) Cf. the Bismarckanecdote in Manz, 100 Jahre Berliner Humor, p. 14.") However, this compilation is more literal than justified in terms of content. In terms of content, the sentences do not quite belong together. The Hamburg-based ml tönt seal "e belongs more to the Berlin-style Kannst mir'n puckelutschen down". But here, too, the superior contempt of the hamburger does not lie in any way.

23 which every dictionary offers, especially the dictionaries of the professional languages, the crooks language, the student and pupil language etc .; But nowhere else do we find a similarly widespread humorous apprehension of the situation, consistently in all strata, from the forsier (here only Friedrich 11th, Friedrich Wilhelm IV., also Emperor Friedrich III.) to the worker, nowhere else so widespread Signs of real humor Inclination and ability to find the joke word that releases the word in a difficult situation. B. Baumann (The Berlin People's Character in Pastoral Care, Berlin 1880) from the Danish War in 1864, entered displeasure in heavy shellfire. Suddenly a good Berlin Nanu can be heard! here you are no longer sure of your life! "and the comedy of the contrast dissolves the mood completely. At the transition to Alsen, the assurance: Better to go ahead six to Stralau than here for free!" She brought the liberating laugh and the change of mood. It is also known what effect the poster produced in a moment of excitement in the coup vote of 1835 (Mielke, Mark. Volkskunde, Landeskunde IV, io): Because of the sudden unwellness of Mr. Fritz Schulze, the shoemaker's boy, the great Berlin revolution cannot take place today "Nowhere is humor as general as it is here. Everything is expensive" (in Berlin), says Beta (Physiologie Berlins, 1846), humor is cheap, jokes are dirt cheap and fun is free. "If you compare collections from others Cities, such as Paul Wriedes Hamburger Volkshumor "*), a good part of the stories could also be recorded in Berlin or other places. But it is quite different with the living word, which often cannot be put into writing and printing, which belongs to the moment. Every Berliner easily sees a funny-brash or a Lomish-loosing remark, and who z. B. observed a waiting crowd in Berlin and elsewhere, the Berlin peculiarity becomes easy for them *) I call this precisely because Hamburgers and Berliners are very different in character.

24 "). This must be noted above all in relation to the many attempts to compare the Berlin joke with that of other cities. They are as old as the observation of the Berlin joke: the confrontation of Berlin and Vienna was obvious; not only because this has been a particularly popular topic since the end of the 18th century, but also because, as already mentioned, the Berliner Lokalposse was created in a replica of the Viennese. the Viennese are funnier and more humorous; if that is more comical, then this is more fun, if the mood of the Berliner is more objective, that of the Viennese is more subjective ... "(Philipps) denies the sharpness of the Berlin joke (that is, probably only the pointedly insulting one), Fontane occasionally points out (letter an Storm 1853) on the intellectually sharp air that has been blowing here since the days of old Fritz: The southern Germans and we relate to one another like the flying leaves to Kladderadatsch. " It must be added that the South German is more artistic and aesthetic, enjoying, on the emotional side, while the Berliner is sober, critical, active, on the Versiand side; that the waterfront seems more difficult, faster than the Berliners, more agile. Often attempts have been made to determine a point in time for the emergence of the Berlin type: Mielke (Volkskunde IV, 8) relocates the beginnings of the joke (the yes, this type of expression is), which has hitherto been held back, but developed all the more sharply and sharply in times of need; The Low German humor would thereby have been deepened in terms of content, made more agile by the French spirit, in contact with the masses it would have received its typical coloring, a result of the population mix. *) The older generation, however, believes they are observing that jokes no longer play the role they did 50 years ago in Berlin life. See e.g. B. also SchrVsGß. 50, 168 (R. M. Meyer). ") Alt-Berlin 111. One will hardly find his combination quite aptly: The Munich folk joke was more primitive, the Dresden more malicious, the Viennese more harmless, the Hamburg more phlegmatic, the Parisian more graceful; it just hit the nail on the head cute and drastic and funny the Berliner."

25 I see nothing by which this timing, including the emergence of the joke in fear and need, could be justified or justified. It is probably only based on the fact that the new era for Brandenburg begins with the Great Electorate (164088). In the well-known essay Die Märker und das Berlinertum "Fontane rejected the widespread assumption that the strong mixture of French blood by the emigrants at the end of the 17th century decided the Berlin physiognomy: The Puritans who moved in at that time could not give the Berliner type anything ; " out of the specific market, the Berlin essence has developed after him since the time of Friedrich 1st, or better still Friedrich Wilhelm 1st. Others, like Erich Schmidt "), and even earlier Glaßbrenner **) thought of the time of Frederick the Great, the rise of Prussia to leadership, which brought the feeling of superiority, frankness of the keynote" ""). And yet this could at most have brought about a breakthrough in forms that had gradually, in a different way, developed. This type of Berlin Geisie, which, like the form of expression we are familiar with, clearly appeared at the time, which one in Friedrichs) himself (like *) Lessing I ^, 160: As far as the close foreign-language circle of the king remained from the residents of Berlin, it could but it is not absent that some of the skepticism prevailing above seeped down below. The citizenship also contained a strong French element. But what is more important: by giving Friedrich a part of the freedom of thought and speech, which he enjoyed so royally with his own people and which he granted to all subjects, the actual Berolinism loosens the young. The good and the unpleasant sides of Berlinism began to emerge more noticeably at that time: the quick joke, the cool criticism, the mental agility, the refusal to be amazed, but also the super-clever, better-informed and political jugglers, which of course had to be very wary. "This skepticism, s . 0. p. 10, but one will probably also understand it as an independent development in the bourgeoisie of the Enlightenment period. **) Berlin and the Berliners: The wit and sarcasm of the Berliners arises from a great and unforgettable source of Prussian fame: from the head of Friedrich des Huge." * ") Numerous anecdotes are in circulation about it; the most famous: Yes, if it weren't for the Supreme Court in Berlin!" f) E.g. Erich Schmidt (Lessing I ^, 154) finds in him the Berlin tone of dismissive negligence, in which a legitimate sense of self is clothed ".

26 directed to the other side, also recognized by his father), of course, cannot have arisen suddenly: what came out roughly with Friedrich Wilhelm I was probably in the new spirit, atmosphere of this time, which was also Lessing's time, the The time of intellectual development of the citizen's country is sharpened, liberated. It does not create the type, at most it works it out, it also gives, like every highly turbulent period, new stimuli, new directions: König "), who witnessed this period, has been the political interests of Berliners since the Seven Years' War, including from On the other hand, reference was made to the pot pouring of the lower classes at that time, and this precondition of political interest of all classes is necessary at least for the development of the political catchphrase.) Undoubtedly one observes an increased local feeling then and through Friedrich. At the same time it is the time when the Criticism develops. The Berlin style is clearly present in the 18th century. But its approaches are certainly older: As the folk style gradually united itself and went through certain experiences, it will have gradually consolidated itself with them. which is generally characteristic of the low, German, the quick conception, the warm blood of the mixed population couple deal with the superiority, the agility of the capital; the sober criticism of the Märker, which, like the skepticism that is connected with it, through the decisive intellectual development of the bourgeoisie especially at the time *) Attempt at a historical description of the royal city of Berlin, ") From this point of view, much of this has been handed down Everything should be remembered of the songs of war. General Grün wants to go to Berlin, "they mocked in 2nd Silesia. War was his futile efforts and portrayed him riding a crab. People mocked the worsening money in the Seven Years' War: beautiful on the outside, bad on the inside. From the outside Friedrich, from the inside Ephraim "(the coin supplier). There were countless verses like this before. In the Northern War the Berliners mocked the allied kings: The three holy kings with their star, Stralsund and Wismar would like them." No weight will be attached to this.

27 - the Enlightenment received special reinforcement, combined with the talent to grasp the word from all sides at lightning speed, with the ability to defend himself effectively, which the Berliner always had to practice in his history. Viewed historically, the possibility of feeling superior to others (even if only in the circle of the Brandenburg cities) already existed in the 14th century. At that time, the young city was already so important that the Fürsien struggling for the mark recognize that Berlin in particular had to be reassured. "Later, when the power of self-government was broken, after the economic slump of the 16th century ., the political of the first half of the 17th century, the position as the royal seat of the Great Electorate, which first drew attention to Brandenburg, has given the city renewed importance the aristocracy and courtiers): The Brandenburgers are fortunate that they have particularly good rumors with foreigners as well as local residents and that many believe that they need nothing more than to cast their eyes on a Brandenburgian to immediately look at him to distinguish his skillful manner from all others. "The new moment, which came with the court of Frederick 111th, which ve the taste Refined, art and science lifted foreign visitors into the residence, but above all the importance that the personality of Friedrich 11th Berlin gave, must not be overlooked. During the imperial era, people felt less like the center of the administration than they were superior. as a city of work for others But at the same time one always feels the barrier: if one had outgrown other cities, if one was allowed to be proud of the development, this feeling was not entirely pure. At home the Berliner feels the tutelage he was under until into the days of Frederick the Great and for longer, outside the distrust that was shown to him from all sides, so that the feeling of superiority is only a conditional, doubtful, skeptical one can be. Linked to this *) Gedichte 1711, p. 67.

28 and at the same time something else: defense *) had always been a reason to practice in the 15th century against the unpopular court society, next to whom the markers were pretty much excluded from the service, besides whom they did not want to work ^); and for more recent times we only quote Zelter (to Goethe, August 10, 1826) instead of all further comments: You seem affected by the tone that sometimes ... runs away from me towards such gentlemen. A man born here is surrounded by a bunch of strangers, who like to ignore their host if he does not parade against them. "This is how the force that is so typical of Berlin, with which one had to be on guard to defend one's rights again and again, emerges Sande the Mark has to work hard, conscientiously, all the more so since the Low German way, as its older Geisies story shows, was predominantly in line with the Sanders. With all this, the self-irony that grew out of the most intellectually moderate and skeptical disposition also sees inferiority of others from the knowledge of one's own self-esteem and at the same time doubts about oneself This defense, the lack of good-naturedness, also from the bondage to the authorities, which the capital and residence city felt particularly, and which, instead of the weapon, created the controversial word as an outlet instead of the weapon at the same time as the recognition of one's own limits, self-sarcastic, self-mockery. The keen attitude of the senses, exercise of the mind, is also shown in the gift of hearing the ambiguity of words on which so many Berlin jokes are based. However, as is often the case, the shipping-related approach is developed at the expense of the sense of form. The Berliner is or was extraordinarily frugal "), without a sense of pomp, for solemn, *) The defense exercised in doubting self-esteem, the tendency to relate and compare, is also found in the students, and schoolchildren's talks, in the red word there are strong similarities in the formation of words and phrases. "This has been emphasized again and again since the 18th century, Gädicke in the Berliner Lexikon 1806: The Berliner's way of life is generally very

29 leit "(Fontane), in the good, but also in the bad, without a sense of a finer way of life, amiable approach. He repels only too easily through coarse coarseness. He likes to turn his thorns outwards, criticizing without consideration. Whoever has the heart like that easy on the tongue, tends to be good-natured. Good-naturedness and a sense of charity are among the character traits that we have been attested to over and over again in early times. In addition to this, there is also his extraordinary joy in nature *): the Sunday trips are not only with the tram came up, much earlier people went "on wagons, gate wagons, Kremsern, with trek barges or Moabit gondolas or on foot, with children and cones, apprentices and friends with the food" into the countryside. Every Berliner always has a little bit of Leberecht chicken. This good-naturedness, however, protects the Berlin irony, the Berlin mockery, from becoming really malicious. A certain political and literary doggedness and acuteness (Gutzkow, Varnhagen, who was not a Berliner, newer newspapers and magazines) emanate from intellectuals in tense times. Clearly recognizable, as we explained above, is today's Berlin type in the 18th century, whose way of life, whose people are much closer to our understanding than those of the 17th century. What do we hear about the Berliner in testimonies from earlier times **)? Above all, as mentioned, one points out one's good-naturedness and helpfulness ***). A traveler 1731 (Bär 11, 564) mentions the cleverness, education and liveliness, also that one does not pay much attention to stiff ceremonial ^), these are traits that can be ascertained up to the present day, frugal, even in the higher ones If the stalls were not associated with much effort, as in some other large residential and ... commercial cities (on average, stood), the effort in eating and drinking was very moderate. "*) Reminds fei of the special development of life in the arboric colonies around Berlin . ") Lasch, written language, p. 117 or 148 ^ it is pointed out that the judgment that the well-known abbot loh. Tritheim, who was the Elector's guest in 1505, about which Berliners gives, cannot be objectively correct in all parts. * ") So King a. A. O. -f) D. l. Still under Friedrich Wilhelm I.!

30 also (1785 Berl. Mon. 6, 318) that people like to rhsonly and too brazenly here *). A traveler offended himself in 1779 about the rudeness of the Berlin mob ladies "and the willfulness of the street youth. Perhaps he got caught in one of those long-spun curses, dialogues of swear words and outpouring of bitter bile" of some market hawker, as she did in 1783 (Berl. Mon. 3 , 49) are described, here with the addition that would be worth standing in Shakespeare! "This last-named Berlin friendlier article describes the Berliner as active, not slavish, not exaggeratedly humble, more serious than loudly funny") ... .The cheerful courage here seems to be the result of reflection, male activity, quite a lot of freedom, good civil security and a little recklessness. You would be very surprised at the speculation and reasoning of the common and middle class here. There are extremely shy people among citizens, craftsmen, soldiers, who think keenly and correctly and express themselves very appropriately ... "Nobody cares about the other, so there are many original characters here". Here, too, the lack of luxury is emphasized, and it is further mentioned that the Berliner is cold, not warm. We try to supplement these brief hints a little by asking what we know of the older Berlin joke as an expression of this type. Above all, one has to realize, of course, that the form or mode of expression of the same type of Geisies may have been very different over time, harmless in the times of oppression, when the ironic side is perhaps developed; more politically colored, e.g. B. in the times of the constitutional struggles of the thirties and forties of the nineteenth century (precisely this type has become known through the literature on memoirs, especially through Glaßbrenner's eagerly absorbed writings); literary (certainly not without the influence of the Jewish *) Beta, Physiologie Berlins 1846, 3, on the other hand, asserts that one is so fond of looking for something is characteristically Berlin. He is probably thinking of the group of those who are often described by others who deal with potatoes and "Stullen", so as not to stand back in a suit. ") This last move will not be approved today.

31 intelligentsia with their great literary interest, whose dissecting, critical nature met the berlinischentat) in the beginning of the 19th century, when z. B Goethe's not easily understood Epimenides Eh wie meen Se des? "Was re-baptized. Leoetzow's (Löwenzopf he was called) was interpreted coarsely. The continuation of Des Epimenides judgment": I wie jemeen is des! "Zelter and others pass on a whole series of such literature, and Theater jokes. What do we now know about the older forms of expression? Do they reflect the spirit that we consider typical today? We are allowed to mention the 16th century Märkische Schwankbuch, Hans Clawerts (pron. Klauert) Werckliche Historien ") here, although the author not a Berliner, but Märker is; It was published in Berlin, and Clauert, a really living personality, was with Joachim 11th and Eusiachius v. Close a welcome pastime. We do not have a forerunner of Glaßbrenner who portrays people and types with a keen eye and witty words, it is a folk book that tells the pranks, vacillations, deeds of Hans Clauert or those who go under his name, which cleverly addresses all situations save knows, outwits or fools others, occasionally the popular Schwanksioff is fooled by the deceived fraudster. Every story has a moral "added to it. The typical Berlin joke is, to the greatest extent, word joke, here it is more a question of hoax or situation comedy. If there was an individual Berlin or Brandenburg style at that time, it is not expressed here. Clauert could just as well Osifale or North Lower Saxony, although part of the Schwanke tells real events, although Clauert has Mutterwitz, which is characteristic of the later Berliner, but which is nothing characteristic in itself. Johann Schönbrunn (born Berlin 1591, died 1654) in bring the Berlin line, from the sexton **) a number of witty ant, *) by Bartholomäus Krüger, town clerk in Trebbin, reprinted by Th. Raehse, Halle cf. Bolte, Hans Clauert and Johann Schön, brunn. Berlin S. also Pniower , Brandenburgia 6, 290. **) Old and new Berlin IV, 2, 509 following Seidel's Collektaneen, more easily accessible from Bolte, op. Cit. (After Lacobis Elogia Brandenburgica).

32 but words handed down, quick-witted *), sending the conceited mocker home. In contrast to Clauert and his historian, Schönbrunn is an economically Berliner, a member of the council. Of course, his manner is not that of the men from the people, but rather cleverly formed, pointed. That is also the Berlin type, only that you can of course also find it individually in these circles outside of Berlin. The literary tradition is otherwise so scant that the question cannot even be raised here as to whether Berlin was able to bring up so much humor and satire in the Middle Ages as, for example, B. the Brunswick Chronicle and song poetry. Certainly there was no lack of mocking songs here either, and the unsuccessful Bernauer Wolf Hunt 1609 **) certainly found a booming echo here, even the elector alludes to it; but the tradition, compared with other parts of Lower Germany, is very poor. Of course, the craftsmen have their nicknames (also in the Bernau poem mentioned above, the furriers are called cat flayers, the tailors are billy goats). Other folk jokes are also occasionally recorded, for example that (1731) ^ ") the red-clad bellboys are called crabs". But the spring flows very thinly and, above all, the individual is missing. The inscription that was found pinned to the castle in block letters when Frederick I died had a politically critical touch: This castle is for rent and this Berlin residence is for sale "-». The Berlin type is occasionally made from comments by Friedrich Wilhelm I. want to read out; in the tobacco college he is probably more coarse than funny, and for example the way they dealt with the dead Gundling ") seems rather cruel today. It is far more interesting that with Friedrich Wilhelm I we are already observing how quickly a term, a new experience on the FB, when asked how it happens that the new money turns red so quickly, he replies: It is ashamed that it is so poor in silver. "") The wolf was only a dog. The Bernauer Lied is published by Bolte, Arch. F. Litg. 15, 225. "*) Bär 11, 551. f) Friedländer, Berl. Written newspapers, SchrVGßerl. 38, 405.

33 can become a catchphrase. This is a typical Berlin way of enriching vocabulary: When the French Mississippi society collapsed, King Mississippi needs "to be lost for". (P. 184.) A good part of the Berlin joke word formations of modern times are name and memorial jokes. Of course, they belong especially to the moment, and where, as here, local literature is missing, only chance will convey them. But you will also find isolated traces of this kind, e.g. B. the name Geckhol, d. i. Narrenloch, since the 14th century for a dead end "), are not even allowed to put weight on: such names are nowhere missing, not even where the mental disposition is completely different than in Berlin. That the Rosensiraße got its lovely name, originally about one Restoring a disreputable place is also nothing specifically Berlin. Sometimes you come across nicknames in old city books. It doesn't even need to be a joke when in 1537 one of the Berlin field guards ""), who is on the lookout for field thieves, zubenamsi becomes; perhaps he took part in the parade on the day of the three kings as a star-kisser "(one of the three kings"); or if the Cologne citizen Georg Riechenow is mockingly called "Duke Georg" in 1542, one cannot particularly note that either. pay homage heavily, say nothing for the Berlin joke. Relatives sounds to us, for example, Frederick the Great's derisive term Spitzegerber "for his banker Splitgerber, drawn together from Spitzbube and *) In the extension of the Klosiersiraße to the city wall (Neue Friedrichsiraße). For this name, see p. 53. **) Berliner Bürgeematrikel 1537 records the free admission of the three city operators: Peter Merten, Hans von dem Felde, Cleman die Sternekuker or sweyner (shepherd) called, all three wechter. * ") Such moves lived in the immediate vicinity of Berlin deep in the 19th century. See, for example, Kuhn, Märkische Sagen (1842), p. 347 from Pichelsdorf. -J-) Peucker, Wolklingende Funny Paucke. Berlin P. is by the way the most genuine himself.

34 Split tanners *). But the type of joke from Berlin is no longer questionable about this tent. At that time, for example, the newly built library was immediately given the name "chest of drawers" (book chest of drawers: Karl Lessing to his brother, n), which is still alive today, just as, for example, the critics of the Blücher monument immediately after the unveiling (1826) removed the cannon barrel and the pointed saber point , interpreted:, / he says to those who are loofing so miserably here: Come teenagers to my stove, I don't have much space! "") It is noticeable that in the various correspondences in the middle of the century nobody actually ever Berlin joke touches the fact that Lessing, for example, ignored him, for the forms we know existed in the age of Frederick the Great on the other hand: The pretty story that Zelter experienced around 1770 (to Goethe,) "*) seems very familiar, as he walks across the street as a 15- to 16-year-old boy, a passer-by starts to sing B lühe, dear violet ", then stop. After waiting a while, I involuntarily sing the second verse that I brought up myself. "We were already a long way apart when I heard myself calling out: Alfanz! Dummerjahn! If he wants to sing, he'll start a song all by himself! " Or the market talk communicated by Tlantlaquatlapatlis Chronic von Berlin "II 707 (1789): The butcher's wife to the customer who complains about prices: For forgiveness, where do you live, young woman? I want to have it carried to you home on top of that, and stay my servant out, have some painted for you! " But it is pointless to give the samples from this time, when they are so much in the daytime. *) Letters to Fredersdorf 331. ") Lami, mixed pickles and quantities mus. Similarly, the joke is passed down more often, e.g. Familiar Letters I, 50." *) Börne does not recount them exactly from memory (Berlin letters, edited by L. Geiger, p. 15). The reproduction goes on Börne at Manz a. a back.

35 also the already mentioned author of the comments of a traveler through the Kgl. Prussia. States (Altenburg 1779, 1, 554), who said of the Berlin mob "pride paired with rudeness, God forbid everyone" to come into his hands. Worst of all, the Berlin mob ladies "and the willfulness of the common Berlin youth who walks around the streets knows no bounds!" Since the 1970s, the characteristics of Berlin have also mentioned this species as typical, e.g. B. Berl. Mon. 1783, 3, 51: I have often heard true joke here in the expression of the common mob with intense passion: long-spun curses, dialogues of swearwords and outpourings of bitter bile that would be worthy of being in Shakespeare. Especially since the beginning of the 19th year, Hundred, Berlin jokes were frequently transmitted in letters and notes. The fact that these are now being observed is not only due to the changed inner attitude, but rather to the fact that the language form of the educated, which was previously also Berlin " , now deviating from it, has become written German. The impression made by the harmony of the special form with the content could not previously come from the linguistic form. Mielke, Landeskunde 111, 11, 19 pointed out that despite the strong influx of foreigners in the last half century, the species we encountered around 1900 was no different from the type known to us from abundant material in the early 19th century (we add after what has been said before: also in the second half of the 18th century). How strong must this species be in order to assimilate the immense stranger's syrup ") in order to be recognizably the same under these completely different, repeatedly changed living conditions over the course of these 150 years. But this shows that they are not quite young can, a newly acquired species cannot withstand such an onslaught. We previously indicated that we are much, more of the opinion, that these typical traits, such as the *) König, op. cit. Vl, V1, 283 (1798) : The real Berliners can be found sparingly. " It is well known that the literary representatives of Berlin and tnms in the 19th century are mostly non-Berliners.

36 Saxon-Franklsch-Slavic-folk here consolidated, developed through historical experiences, gradually emerged. The expression need not, cannot always have been the same; with Schönbrunn we seem to already suspect traces of the kind we are familiar with. The Great Elector brings a new experience as he leads Brandenburg up from the misery of the Thirty Years' War. The Feit Friedrichs 1. brings lightness, cultivation of art and science, refinement, because the city takes part in the fine, enjoyable life of the court. An influx of strangers in the 17th and 18th centuries brought new blood to her. We know the people of the 18th century. Friedrich Wilhelm 1., who corresponds to the good Brandenburg bourgeois type, hard-working, dutiful, permeated by the feeling of responsibility, behind which everything has to recklessly step back, coarse, practical, sober and sensible, skeptical, suspicious, without a sense of fine ways of life. And finally the time of Frederick the Great, in which the Berlin style finds its expression in forms that are close to us. We have been investigating questions that seem to be far removed from a linguistic history, they are not. We shall recognize (Chapter IV) how much the development of language is conditioned by external development; we shall have to elaborate further, such as this type of geisie of the Berliner, for the ability to create words or for one's own development of meaning, the creation or further development of idioms, or even that Selection and use of adopted expressions has fundamental meaning. If we shall see that the earlier history of Berlin can be grasped primarily in phonetic history *), then the important factor for the knowledge of the last century is one's own development of the treasure trove of words and idioms. It gives Berlinic its very own position, because there is probably no other dialect in which the bearer of the language is so active in creating words. *) and historical.

37 II. The oldest inhabitants We include the history of Berlin under this name, where a divorce is not necessary, also Cologne in the following with begins for us around 1230 "). At the beginning, the question of the settlement not only for the historian sees a history of language as well will not be able to get around it completely ^): who are the settlers who brought their language into the new country, gave it the form of language? Because if this language is also Low German, not the actual Berlinic "that we are talking about today with the Thinking words, this has absorbed so many elements of what was previously spoken here by Mark (see pp. 36, 83) that we cannot pass it by, even if we think more of the earlier period as an introduction. In this Low German period, of course, the nd language spoken in Berlin cannot be separated from the area around the whole group of the southern Central Markets, and one must therefore turn to the whole language area. There is no state in Germany whose older history is still buried in so much uncertainty and darkness as the Mark Brandenburg. "These words, which were written at the beginning of a treatise 3ulleb anciens KabitantB äeb Uarck6B" (1752), which was awarded by the Berlin Academy. stand, are still valid in some relationships today. Historians argue whether Berlin or Cologne is the older German city, whether Berlin was the foundation of a city or an extension of a village complex. The history of language can ignore these questions, since the slight difference in time in each case is completely irrelevant in terms of language; it only takes into account which ethnic groups are involved in the development of the Brandenburg language form. She looks at the names, compares the *) settlement of the Mittelmark begins in the middle of the 12th century. ") We choose this short term, even if it is not exactly precise.

38 chronic reports and first of all wins the fact of the Slavic name Berlin for their purposes. "The German settlement thus bears the name of a Slavic complex in whose neighborhood or on whose soil it must have been built. On the other bank of the Spree, Cologne ^) the name of the famous Rheinsiadt. Such a transfer presupposes an interest of the settlers in it *), and one will, as the place-name studies have taught us, look for this in the colonization entrepreneur, the locator, and assume that he is the young start-up in the As the auspicious name of the Spree, it gave the leading city in his home area, all the more so since, as we shall see, Franconian relationships are also not missing in the naming of the neighborhood. In addition to the traces of the Slavic pre-population, there are traces of the Franconian settlers.The colonists of the march are of various origins; From different German countries, in different stages, the newcomers pour into the country, where they were offered a new home. In no case, however, could the Franconian have been the decisive settler in Mittelmart. A certain conclusion as to the origin of the nucleus of the colonists, the main group in each case, which was so strong, so dominated over all the individual groups, that it gave the country its language, that the other forms of language absorbed into it, is afforded by an observation this language. The native language of the southern Brandenburg area is undoubtedly the South Ossifälische area between the Elbe, Saale, Harz, an area that today has largely given up Low German in its eastern part, Elbosifälischen ^), but we are well acquainted with the latter language form in the Middle Ages. With what we infer from the language, the historical circumstances merge in the most beautiful way, because this is the country to which the relations of the Astan gentlemen also led, the home of the margraves, the descendants of Albrecht the Bear, who spoke the same language, a fact which possibly linguistically lent further emphasis to the preponderance that this group apparently had numerically over the variously composed colonies of other origins, contributed to the fact that this form of language,

39 the leading one who could suck up all the others. This is the area from which the rulers brought their people to the Marl. From here the ecclesiastical orders, Premonsratians, Cistercians (Zinna, Lehnin) penetrate cultivating. The bulk of the colonists came from those Elbosifälischen lands, which at the beginning of the mnd. Spiritual and cultural development are generally leading *), where z. B. At the beginning of the 13th century, at the same time as the colonizing multitudes moved into the Central March, the Sachsenspiegel was created. Here lay Magdeburg, the famous aldermen's chair, the legal center for the whole of the East. The Mittelmark **) is enfeoffed with Magdeburg law, so it looked there legally. The tradition of this origin was still well known in the Mark in the 14th century: loh. von Buch, the famous Brandenburg court judge, knows (gloss to Sachsenspiegel 11, 12 3) ***) that the people in a brand ... almestick incomen sin aibs6 von 3> vaven, those in front kine. The Rhine leads us back to the areas of Cologne; Swaven, d. see the so-called North Swabia, between Harz and Saale, precisely the area that we recognized as the motherland. The Lower Saxon language form of this country, whose sound and inflection forms had a special coloring due to its borderland location, determines the Middle Martian according to sound form, and to a large extent according to vocabulary. As the main characteristic! ') We only refer to the diphthongs ü, I, where the further lower Saxon. Area 0 e had (see p. 44) kü «t Fuß: köt; bn f, lt t, bref, let, sen letter, let, see. The vocabulary of the whole area from the Elbe to beyond the Harz also had its own coloring, which results from the border landscape. Here we choose a few very simple words that are already used in the oldest Berliner *) Cf. Nd. Jahrb. 51, 59ff- ") Berlin went to rights near Brandenburg, Brandenburg near Magdeburg. *") Here to Seelmann, the Nd. Years 49, 59 the quote from a manuscript in the Berliner Staatsbibl. leading. f) lut bns lit Bin was written with the simplification of the diphthongs, and these forms are characteristic of Brandenburg documents of the time.

40 Text, the city book, passed down in its free Benliner parts in the 14th century and is delineated in the entire country mentioned; for it is precisely the oldest evidence that is particularly important for questions relating to the settlement: behind "here means kmcler (pron. Ki ^ er), less often eighth; in the main area of ​​Lower Germany it is the other way round (eg: 868 Luuchten Btan kinäer Bünte Nycolau3 cdore). Messer ": otherwise met 3, measure; here next to it the long form, ßrempeier for the small shopkeeper, who also sells beer meters and the like (cf. today's Krempel, Grempel: Kram), as in Eastern Central German (Luther: Grempelmarkt: Trödelmarkt). In the city book it says about the beer levy: v ^ ßrempeiei-Zßeven tunnen 4 penninm. dorn Brunnen, see note 13. Our Brandenburg designation Heide "(forest; the name green, forest") is already evident from the basic word forest as not very old; on the other hand) Oame ^ ke keiäe z. B. in the city book, Wuhlheide, lungfernheide, Spandauer, TeltowscheHeide (the old name of Grunewald), Kölnische Heide etc. Heidereuter (Heidereutergasse) was about a Unterförsier. We have the same meaning of Heide ') in South Ossifal ^) and in the adjoining Upper Saxony (e.g. the Dölauer Heide near Halle * "). This development of the meaning of the old word will probably not have occurred independently in both areas The basis of our area is determined, so from here the main mass, the group of decisive importance, which absorbs all foreign elements from other areas, must have come to the southern Central Mark. Family and place names also connect us to this area oldest known by name Berlin town clerk 1288, 1289 is called loh. Barboie, Barbeye, di Barbyf) (Anhalt). Hermann Barboie is 1309 verifiable are Ulricus and from äer *) chap. VI i 2. ") The Sachsenspiegel, which is of Elbosifälifchen origin , names the three banforsia in which hunting is prohibited: next to the Harz cls devcls tko covne "and äe ikazdotkeyäe" (11, 6la). Z. Distribution see note 7. * ") Obs. Examples see Adelung's dictionary. F) Of course, it is soon no longer the bearer of the name who comes from that area, but an ancestor. But that is the same for us.