How can you compare neuroscience and cognitive
Despite the progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in the empirical investigation of elementary psychological performance, the assignment of neural activity to information processing processes that underlie elementary psychological performance is still fraught with fundamental open questions. For example, it is unclear whether the rate of fire of individual cells provides the essential coding scheme for mental states and processes; alternatively, the time pattern of the activation of a relatively large number of neurons could also be the relevant variable (attachment problem). This consideration can currently only be tested inadequately, since the fire rates of a large number of neurons of interest have not yet been able to be measured independently and simultaneously. Furthermore, the activation of areas of the brain cannot be recorded in a spatially precise manner using methods such as fMRI and temporally precisely using methods such as MEG.
Another problem is that there is often no theoretical consensus on how certain basic psychological functions (e.g. visual attention) should be broken down into sub-functions and associated processing systems. Therefore, a further development of the discipline that relates solely to the measurement methods should not bring any decisive progress if it is not possible at the same time to formulate appropriate theories with plausible functional decompositions into partial services and processing systems and to develop appropriate experimental paradigms for their verification. Due to the data situation, our current conceptions of elementary psychological services such as perception or memory have now reached a level of complexity that makes a high-tech measurement (fMRI, MEG) appear to be of little use if this measurement only uses everyday psychological concepts of such psychological services and the previous, empirically validated functional decompositions into subsystems are ignored. Therefore it is essential for the success of the company "cognitive neuroscience" to advance not only the measurement technology but also the theory in combination with the experimental methodology.
Lit .:Davidson, R.J., Irwin, W .: The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3, 11-21 (1999). Frith, C., Dolan, R.J .: Images of psychopathology. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 8: 259-262 (1998). Gazzaniga, M.S., Ivry, R.B., Mangun, G.R .: Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of Mind. New York 1998. Kandel, E.R.,Schwartz, J.H., Jessell, Th.M .: Neuroscience - An Introduction. Heidelberg 1996. Kolb, B., Whishaw, I.Q .: Neuropsychology. Heidelberg 1996. Kosslyn, S.M., Koenig, O .: Wet mind: the new cognitive neuroscience. New York 1992. Milner, A.D., Goodale, M.A .: The Visual Brain In Action. New York 1995. Pinker, S .: How the Mind Works. New York 1997. Posner, M.I., Raichle, M.E .: Images of the mind. Heidelberg 1996. Rumelhart, D.E., McClelland, J.L.,the PDP Research Group: Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition - Volume 1: Foundations. Cambridge 1986. Singer, W., Engel, A.K., Kreiter, A., Munk, H.J., Neuenschwander, S., Roelfsema, P.R .: Neuronal assemblies: necessity, signature and detectability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1, 252-261 (1997).
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