What is the differentiation of Module X.


The differentiation describes "all measures of a school and teaching organizational nature that are taken to promote students, their different inclinations, talents, interests, weaknesses and strengths, taking into account the respective stage of development [...]" (Saalfrank 2008, pp. 66-67) .

From the studies already carried out on the cognitive prerequisites, it becomes clear that the construction of knowledge stocks is individual and, above all, draws on previous knowledge - this also applies and even especially when dealing with media, which bring another factor of social disparities into the classroom . "A lesson whose design principle aims to promote individualization in a variety of ways, namely in terms of learning output and learning opportunities, is student-oriented, since the student is at the center of the teacher's efforts [...]." (Saalfrank 2008, p. 67) So When dealing with the media, for example, care must be taken to take individual factors into account. Here, for example, »attentative processes [...] are highly dependent on the prior knowledge of the learner" (Horz 2009, p. 112). On the one hand, films and animations, for example, have "a positive motivational effect" (ibid.), But do not necessarily lead to greater learning success. “In comparison to reading a text, watching a film is perceived as 'easy'” (ibid.). This can lead to a reduced effort in terms of mental processing of the film or video, whereby a long-lasting interest is not built up (cf. ibid.). A considerable “amount of prior knowledge is necessary in order to interpret logical images and pictograms in a meaningful way” (ibid.) - this is done depending on “cultural conventions” (ibid.), Which block the way to interpretation if they are unknown. Nevertheless, an attempt must be made to maximize the learning output and the learning opportunities for each student. An inner differentiation is necessary for student orientation: not only in didactic and methodological terms, but also with regard to the choice of educational goals. The inner differentiation plays a major role here:

If lessons want to support each individual student optimally, if they want to help everyone to the highest possible degree of autonomy and independence and to enable students to social contact and cooperation skills, then it must be thought through in terms of inner differentiation (Klafki 1996, p. 181) .

According to Bönsch (2009) there are various ways of inner differentiation in order to accommodate individual learning. Melanie Staudermann and Renate Schulz-Zander show the possibilities for classroom interaction and knowledge management with digital media in their article on the ›Dimensions of classroom interaction when using digital media‹ (Staudermann / Schulz-Zander 2012, p. 51ff .) on.

On the basis of case studies and video recordings from the SITES M2 study and the IEA study, they analyze the "use of digital media in teaching on the interactive level of knowledge management [...]" (ibid., P. 51). Reinmann and Mandl (2006, ibid., Pp. 52–53) emphasize that learning is an active, self-directed, constructive, emotional, situational and social process. Such learning processes should be stimulated by creating tasks that are as authentic and complex as possible. They refer to constructivism, which particularly emphasizes the interplay between instruction and construction. In this context, e.g. integrated learning environments are the means of choice (but carefully selected tools are also sufficient). In addition to “self-directed learning, they should also make it possible to promote interactive exchange processes between group members with the common goal of a social co-construction of knowledge” (ibid., P. 53). By exchanging different subjective perspectives, the collaboration is intended to promote the production of knowledge that "contains more than the sum of the individual achievements" (cf. ibid.). For this reason, Schulz-Zander, referring to the SITES M2 study, "extracted four forms of teaching and learning that can implement the - characteristics and potentials of digital media in a special way [...]" (Staudermann / Schulz-Zander 2012, p. 53). According to Schulz-Zander, "individualized learning, research-based learning, collaborative learning (with external partners) and production-oriented learning" (ibid. P. 53) are particularly relevant for teaching and learning. The use of digital media should enable "self-active, constructive and cooperative learning" and "enrich a constructivist-oriented learning environment" (ibid., P. 54).

Liberating inner differentiation according to Bönsch

The work on modules or learning programs should be thought of in such a way that the learning material to be mastered is organized in succession / side by side of modules. The learning plan made known to the students shows these. The students can work on these modules according to the necessary learning time and individually calculated scope of work. Performance assessments are available at any time. Teachers are available for advice and explanation / mediation. When the learning material is programmed in the form of printed programs or computer learning programs, independent learning is promoted even more effectively. The learner is guided through learning sequences, he gets feedback immediately, in the event of mistakes he is offered repetitions, simplifications, loops in order to get over cliffs.

Bönsch, Manfred

  • Work along modules or learning programs.
    • (1) The subject matter is divided into modules (large units) that must be mastered.
    • (2) They are offered according to the curriculum. The students can decide how long they will stay in each module.
  • The learning material is programmed throughout.
    • (1) The students work along computer programs.
    • (2) Discussion phases are offered regularly.

Here it must be considered whether such structures cannot be easily implemented in our conveyor belt, for example. Many problems could be absorbed in this way. Tools that can be used here are e.g. Quizlet, Kahoot, H5P and learning videos.