Why are there Catalan speaking gypsies

On the cultural identity of the Catalan-speaking minority in Sardinia 1

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1 fosep Martí i Pérez On the cultural identity of the Catalan-speaking minority in Sardinia 1 In Italy, Wguer - a medium-sized town on the north-west coast of Sardinia - is known as the "cittadina catalana" (the "small Catalan town"). The reason for this is that an archaic dialect of Catalan is spoken in the city today, and thus Wguer forms a linguistic island within Sardinia. The city was conquered by Catalans in 1354 and the original Genoese-Sardinian population was replaced by families from the Iberian Peninsula. OOguer was considered a Catalan city from the start, and it became Spanish when the Spanish kingdom was formed through the union of Catalonia and Castile at the end of the 15th century. The fact that Sardinia belonged to the Spanish crown until the beginning of the 18th century and the isolated existence that W had afterwards and practically until the time of the Second World War have contributed to the preservation of the language of the ancient conquerors to this day hato Of course, it is not just the language that gives Wguer its independence compared to the rest of Sardinia. Catalan customs and traditions have also been preserved to this day, the population is aware that the city once belonged to the Catalan - late Spanish - crown, and there is consequently a pronounced Algerian awareness. Today the city has a not insignificant demographic weight within Sardinia with a little more than inhabitants. Until the Second World War, the Algueres lived mainly from fishing, agriculture and small-scale industry. Today tourism is their main source of income, as Wguer has become one of the most important tourist centers in Sardinia. The Algueres are proud of the fact that their city once belonged to the Spanish crown, and if necessary one is proud to have a Catalan family name, even if the names associated with the original Catalan settlers are much rarer than one might think. Not infrequently claim I elaboration from the! Capitel.heimatbewubtsein "from the work published in Berlin in 1986.I.:AIguer. Cultural anthropological monograph of a Sardinian city".

2 340 Josep Martí i Pérez some Algueresians stubbornly towards the Italians and especially the Sardinians that they are not Sardinians, but Spaniards or Catalans. All you have to do is walk the streets of ralguers to see the importance of highlighting the city's former relationship with Catalonia and the Spanish Crown. Many shops have such unique names as "Catalan Shopping", "Autosruola catalana", "Renta a sec catalana"; but especially those companies in the tourist industry: "El Balear", "Gran Catalunya ~" Thrragona ~ "Locanda catalana ~" La Lepanto "," Carlos V "etc. The population doesn't know much about the city's history, but there are some Facts of this history, which every Alguereser knows and which are constantly present, such as: The city was Spanish in the past. In the Middle Ages the city led many impulses against the city of Sassari, which is located in the center, ie against the rebellious Sardinians who fought against the Catalan occupying power. The Spanish Emperor KARL V visited his Algerian subordinates in the year 1541. As we can see, these are individual memorial points that emphasize the former relationship of the city to the Catalan or Spanish crown. and which - when they are continued, often take on legendary traits. This contrasts, on the other hand, with the lack of legends or historically founded stories genes relating to the city's pre-Catalan period; so z. For example, the area around Ralguers with its rich haological finds from the Nuragic lhiode of Sardinia or the assumed founding of the city by the Genoese in the 11th century seem to have no significance for the collective memory of the Algerian population. A selection has taken place here, in favor of the city's Catalan-Spanish time. If one asks the Algueresians today whether they feel like Sardinians, the answer vide, especially older people - because the younger ones are often a little more critical - spontaneously with a "No", although, if you look further into the question, their answer is contradicting itself feel. At the beginning of my stay in ralguer, I once talked to a 70-year-old woman about the city. In the lukewarm conversation, she always used the term "paisos sardos" (Sardinian dorrer) when referring to the villages in the area around ralguers. Somewhat astonished, I asked her if she was using the word "Sardinian", if ralguer wasn't "Sardinian". At first she reacted a little confused to my question, thought a little and then added: "Mosaltros sem també sardos ..., ma la nostra nació és diversa" ["We are Sardinians too, but our 'nation' is different"]. In the absence of many discussions on this topic, one often tried to give a Solomonic solution to the apparently contradicting answer that, although Sardian, one did not consider oneself to be Sardian. : for Sardinians are because ralguer is in Sardinia; but we feel like Alguereses [in opposition to the Sardinians] ";: for them are Sardinians, but our culture is Catalan [or Spanish]". Cultural identity in Sardinia In a nutshell, an old fisherman said to me when we were standing at the counter of a bar:; JIÍr are Catalan Sardinians. "All of this doesn’t have to lead us crazy, so that the Algerian homeland consciousness would be prematurely ascribed to a certain Catalanism or Spain In general usage, the ralguers make a strong distinction between "Algueres" and "Sardinians": they are Algueresians; the "others" are Sardinians. The word "sardo" (Sardinian) and the adjectives derived from it such as "sardutxo", "sardatxo "or the expression" a la sarda "(in the Sardinian way) are very often used with pejorative meaning, synonymous with ... stupid" or "coarse" l. While one considers ralguer for a progressive, modern and the culture otren city, one accuses "the Sardinians" of their backwardness and closeness. Very symptomatic are e.g. B. the verses with which a very popular Algerian folk drama begins: "No dongariva les torres de falguer pd resto de tota la Sardenya." 2 For Sardinia, one often has the "campanilismo" and the rivalry between towns and cities of similar or equal size and importance mentioned and emphasized..Every Sardinian is known, for example, the traditional hostility or rivalry that exists between cities like Sassari and Cagliari or Sassari and ralguer. The cognitive orientation of the Algueres, on which the opposition SardelAlguereser is based, should not be confused with this "campanilismo". It is not about the rivalry between two communities, but about a sharp, ethnocentric demarcation between the Algueres and "the Sardinians". This cognitive orientation is rooted in very concrete historical events: When the Catalans conquered ralguer in Jabre, they attached great importance to the fact that the city remained loyal to the crown for militar-strategic reasons. I ..: Alguer was supposed to serve as a Rocca site to keep the north of the island under control against the rebellious Sardinians. For this reason, the original population was driven out of the city and replaced by Catalans. For more than a hundred years there was a strong apartheid policy between Sardinians and Catalans. The former were not allowed to own any property within the city and were not allowed to stay overnight there; marriage between Sardinians and Catalans was also not allowed. In addition, the king granted the city quite a few privileges in order to strengthen it economically and in this way to make the stay there more palatable for Catalan families. So it is no aries that at the beginning of the 16th century the city became economically and culturally the most important in northern Sardinia. The Algueres, first as Catalans and then as Spaniards, belonged to the rulers, while the Sardinians were seen as the subordinates. About it I This was already mentioned in the previous century by MILÁ 1 FONTANALS. Cf. MUA 1 FoNTANALS, M: Obres completes 81. Vol. III. Barcelona 1890,! Anyway I would not exchange the Ttirme l'alguers / for the rest of Sardinia ". PINO PIRl \ 5: País de Alegries. Alghero 1982,

3 342 josep Martí i Pérez one has to say that the Sardinians had a rather poor reputation in the Romanians of the Middle Ages, and then, just as the AIgueres still do today, the word "Sardi" was used with a clear pejorative meaning1. This negative attitude towards the Sardinians has persisted in ralguer up to the present day. In spite of the strong Sardian / Alguerese opposition mentioned above, it is very noticeable that the majority of Algerian surnames at present are not of Katajan but of Sardinian origin. Only a minority, none of them more than 7% of these names, are Catalan or Spanish. We have to take into account that since the time when the medieval apartheid policy between Sardinians and Catalans was abolished - at the end of the 15th century - the immigration of Sardinians from the interior has been constant near the Algerian. The constant armed conflicts and, above all, the devastating periods of death, from which the city suffered, especially during its Spanish time, ensured that the population, who descended directly from the original Katajan colonists, disappeared near and by . The Sardinians, however, who have settled in the city in a small but constant flow for the last five centuries, have experienced such a strong vertical acculturation as well as horizontal acculturation that they very quickly have incorporated ralguers into the rest of the fixed sociocultural system. It is very symptomatic of this, for example, that at the beginning of our century 99% of the population spoke Alguerese. 2 It can be said that, despite their language, the Algueres are more likely to be regarded as acculturated Sardinians than as Catalans. Acculturation, however, can never be complete, and a not insignificant part of the Algerian cultural heritage does not differ from that of the Sardinian villages around Ralguer. This acculturation was most effective, however, in those cultural traits of which the Sardinian is more aware that he is differentiated in them from the Algueresians; H. what we may call "conscious, differentiating features". The most unambiguous feature here is the language, and consequently it was the first thing the Sardinian learned: he gave up his language in favor of Alguerese. In ralguer, at least until today - there has never been a sardophone community within the city, i. H. a group in which the Sardinian language was passed down through generations. A similar thing has happened to musical cultural assets. Sardinian music is very different from Algerian music, a fact that it is not only objectively, but is also introduced by the population. An analysis of the Algerian songs shows that the influences of Sardinian music are very small. When we think of the fact that music is one of the most conservative cultural traits and, above all, that most of the Algueres are of Sardinian origin, this may seem a bit baffling. but it is less surprising when we consider the particular socio-cultural backgrounds. Just like this language, in this case the music acts as an identifier of the algueresis sociocultural system: If one wants to read algueresis, one will also have to sing algueresis. I See MARTI 1986 (see note 1, p. 339) Cf. GROSSMAN, MARIA: Coro es parla a l ~ guer? Barcelona 1983, 13. Cultural Identity in Sardinia 343 One of these deliberately differentiating features, which the Sardinians who emigrated near Ralguer quickly adopted, is, of course, the sense of home. The Algerian Sardinian will not only think of himself as an Algerian, but he will also be the first to remain in the ethnocentric Sardian / AIgueresian opposition. When I was in Algeria, I was amazed at how quickly I acquired the "Algerian status". Often people talk mockingly or with prejudice about the Sardinians. Seldom, however, stared the same person who spoke like this, himself from a Sardinian village, considering the Jabre. He didn’t consider the ones he had spent in Ralguer just to be an Algueres, but was even obliged to share the negative opinion of the Algueres about the Sardinians. 1 If the "aiguereser status" is desirable, but cannot be approximated by the birth right, one should quickly adopt those features that are typical of the Algueresians - the deliberately differentiating features. Conversely, means But this does not mean that the Sardinians who moved from the inland to ralguer were considered by the Algueres as "veros a1gueresos" (true AIgueresos). They are also referred to as "algueresos am a la roa" (literally:,. aiguereser with Sehwanzj: "Lo diem de aquellos que diun que són algueresos pero són sardos." [We say it of those who say they are algueres but are arden. "] It is nothing other than a protective reaction of the socio-cultural system The more or more existing "aigueresitat" that is ascribed to a person is reflected hierarchically in everyday language usage in the following expressions: a) "alguerés de anriga r ~ catalana" [or "espanyola"]; (Alguereser old Catalan or Spanish he race], b) "Vm) alguerés" [true algueres], e) "alguerés am a la roa" [algueres with tail], d) "sardo" [sardon]. The criterion that distinguishes b) from e) is whether rnan was born in ralguer or not, and rnan describes you as a) especially if you have a Katajan or Spanish family name or believe you have one. One of the first things that rnan hears in ralguer is: "Veros algueresos sem poc5" ["There are few true Algueresers" 1. For some it is about 4000 and for others even less: "La nostra ra ~ va escomparint; tot són rorestíers. " ["Our race is disappearing; they are no friends. "] In spite of all this, it would be a mistake to believe that the distinction between Sardinians and Alguerese had discriminating consequences for everyday life. In the city there is no endogamy, and you never wade your friends or workers close to them The city dwellers very often speak of the "alguere". However, we have the same phenomenon in front of us as that of the provincial, who has never only appropriated the parts against the rural dwellers, but also defends them convincingly as soon as he has lived a little in the big city

4 344 Josep Martí i Pérez Cultural Identity in Sardinia 345 sischen "," Catalan "or" Spanish Race ".1n falguer -as actually in all of Italy -Used roan but colloquially, .race" in a meaning that is very wmig with a closed and dogmatic biological term has to doo terms like "Neapolitan" ,,. Tuscan "," Sardinian "race etc: belong to everyday life in Italy, whereby roan puts the accent conceptueii clearly on the cultural component of a community. As already mentioned, falguer is today a It has become an important tourist center, and a significant proportion of the travelers who come to the city come from other Catalan countries, mainly from Catalonia. l1 \ jguer is the only Catalan-speaking island outside the Spanish or French borders, and so falguer is, for many, a nationalist Catalans a kind of "place of pilgrimage" where you have to go at least once in your life lihrt, is always a "special tourist"; firstly because one can assume that he is very aware of his Catalan presence, and secondly, unlike the other tourists, he always asked a great interest in getting in contact with the Algerian population. On the other hand, there are more and more Algueresians who are going to KataJo ... nien; Barcelona is one of their favorite travel destinations. Since the sixties, the contact between ralguer and Catalonia has become more intense, not only through tourism, but also through cultural exchange on an institutional level.! As one can easily imagine, this interaction between the Sardinian city and Catalonia finds its expression in the homeland of the Algueres. The first result is that today one does not speak of the "Spanish roots" of the Algerian culture, but of the "Catalan". Until a few years ago, the Algerian population was practically unaware of the distinction between "Spanish" and "Catalan". Tradition spoke of the city's "Spanish origins", but "Catalonia" or "Catalans" were unknown terms to the vast majority of the population. Another result that can be traced back to this interaction is the unequivocal strengthening of the "AIgueresity" This sense of home belongs to the city's traditional view of the world and has been changing - like every other building block of traditional cultural assets - for several decades as a result of the penetration of modernity . The strengthening of the traditional Algerian homeland consciousness has contributed to the fact that it started to disappear, lives on today, and in this way it has linked to the efforts of the minority cultures to revise, which can be found all over Europe today In Barcelona, ​​for example, there is a private ~ in.amies de falguer "that promotes such exchange campaigns.2 An interesting detail about the designation .Katalane "is the fact that dag.katalane" means in Algueres (.catali ") exactly as in Sardinian (Iogudorese: .kadelánu") Not a few languages ​​suggest that your speakers have given this rather unpleasant insect the name of a not very popular for historical reasons. This is the name of the kitchen cockroaches in Russia. Prussia and in Germany (the author does not specify in which part of the Landes) also "Schwaben". Cf. WAGNBR, ML: Dizionario etimologiro sardo. Heidelberg, vol. 1, 256. If the citizens of the Guerese took this meaning of "catalane" from Sardinian, this was only possible because the actual meaning of the word, namely the designation for the original population of Falguers, has disappeared from the minds of the Germans at some point in the sounds of history. can. One result of this was at the political level, for example. B. in 1978 the founding of a political party in falguer called "Sardenya i Uibertat" (Sardinia and Freedom), which can be understood as a regionalist party. The otherness of the Algueres in relation to the rest of Sardinia because of their Catalan roots forms the ideological core of this party. The Algueres can be very aware of the Catalan or Spanish origins of the city, but this does not mean that one can speak of a Catalan national consciousness. The Alguerese can sometimes say "I am a Catalan", and one also speaks of the "cirtadina catalana" when referring to the city; but this has nothing to do with the Catalan nationalism of the Iberian Peninsula. The present Kataian nationalism is the result of an ideology which has been processed for more than a century and which has been internationalized by the population and which corresponds to a concrete, both European and Spanish and Kataian history and a socio-economic reality. A Catalan national consciousness of the Alguerese would only be possible through the direct influence of modern Catalonia, and indeed there have been attempts on the part of some Algueres, who at the beginning of this century directly witnessed the cultural rebirth and political aspirations of the Catalans and were enthusiastic about them Planting catalan nationalism in falguer furt was z. B. founded the Philo-Catalan "Agrupació Catalanista de Sardenya" in falguer, which only had a short life. All of these attempts could not go unnoticed, as the reality of Falguers at that time was very different from that of Catalonia, so these efforts logically met with very little approval from the population. There is no Catalan national consciousness in ralguer today. When some Algueresians say they are Catalans, this statement is to be ascribed to a meta-level that actually serves to support and strengthen the Sarde / Algueresian opposition, which is deeply rooted in the cognitive orientation. This "justifies" the algueresitlit and acquires a transcendence, a tider dimension that distinguishes it on the cognitive level from this mere "campanilismo". If the attitude of the Algueres towards Sardinia seems contradictory, this is not the case when it comes to his "Italianitlit". The penetration of Italianitlit into Algerian society had it easy. When Spain lost Sardinia, there was a Spanish consciousness in ralguer, but by no means a national consciousness. The 1 Without a second, the people of Falguers have never lost the awareness of having belonged to the Spanish crown. Up until the last third of the 18th century there were still citizens of the Gueres who had seen the city as part of the Spanish crown, and in 1868 falguer was on the Catalan side Ma &, a contact and exchange between falguer and general Barcelona resulted in. Until the day when Sardinia fell to the House of Savoy, the Algueres were untejtan to the Spanish KOníg. Li \ .lguer was not part of Catalonia, and the Algueres were not Catalans in this sense, but simply. Spanish ", a term that was passed down and is only now being gradually replaced by" Catalan ". Furthermore, one must not forget that one has only been from Nationa since the French Revolution in Europe lísmus can speak, and from a Catalan national consciousness at the beginning of the 18th century - despite the independence of Catalonia during the Spanish The Succession War could not even be mentioned in Catalonia.

5 346 losep Martí i Pérez The gap left by the Spanish crown when it withdrew was occupied smoothly and without resistance, first by the Savoy King 1, and later by the Italian state. The Alguereser feels clearly Italian because the Italian state is also a social reality for him, but above all because the Italianity does not collide with his cognitive orientation. The "Italienitat" and the Algueresitat are not on the same level and consequently not in opposition to one another, but in a complementary relationship. 2 Since the sich-katalanisch or. Feeling Spanish is a construct that is instrumentalized to justify the Sardel-Algerian opposition, but does not represent real nationalism, it in no way excludes the "ltalienitat" of the Algerian people. One can say that Algerian and Sardinian consciousness - on the level of cognitive orientation - are in a paradigmatic relationship to one another. On the other hand, between Catalan (or Spanish), Algerian and Italian consciousness there is a syntagmatic, i.e. H. a complementary \ b-ratio. Ideal level Real level: social reality I Catalan (Spanish) Algerian -, - Italian Syntag. Sardinian relationship paradig. Relationship I Cognitive Orientation Fig. 1. Levels of cultural awareness in Sardinia and their relationships to one another Since Alguerese, Sardinian and Italian share a friendly social reality, this must also result in a friendly awareness, despite the oppositional relationship that exists between them on the cognitive level Algerian and Sardinian there. And this results in the already mentioned, apparently contradicting attitude of the Alguereser. On the other hand, the Algueresians feel Catalan as a construct on the ideal level, with the result that no national consciousness can arise that is directly based on reality. The cognitive orientation described up to now and its implications for the homeland consciousness, which in turn also affects the political life of the city, has contributed to the fact that the Guerese intellectuals take a stand on this, dividing them into two groups: those who are one of the Algueres ascribing a certain "Catalanilicity", and those who regard the Catalan or Spanish history of Mlguers as a long outdated colonial period and from Catalanism on the part of the Savoy, no action was taken against the former Spanish subjects in Sardinia - according to the London declaration . 2 In the case of a committed Catalan, on the other hand, his Catalan act excludes a feeling of being Spanish. There is clear opposition here. Don't want to know anything about cultural identity in Sardinia. 1 This last group is actually quite small and has so far not had much success among the population, since it clearly distances itself from the traditional cognitive orientation of falguers. If the Algerian literary and intellectuals are not Philo-Catalan, they are currently trying to awaken a Sardinian consciousness with the intention of reaping the benefits of being in a state of national revision in order to form a friendly front against the Italian state with the rest of Sardinia. This Sardinian culture has little relevance to the Algerian homeland consciousness. The reasons for this are obvious: on the one hand, it is the already mentioned traditional attitude of many Algueresians who consider "Sardinian" in opposition to "Algerian", so that one is an AIgueresian because one is not "Sardi". On the other hand, it is the fact that Sardinia has so far not been able to develop a strong and unambiguous popular national consciousness, as is the case e.g. B. is the case with the Spanish Basques or Catalans. In the case of Sardinia, crucial components were missing for this. So there has practically never been a Sardinian state. The capital Cagliari is - different from z. For example, Paris for France, Berlin for WWII Germany or Barcelona for Catalonia - never been able to be the driving force of the whole country. In this regard, Cagliari has never been a real capital. Its geographical location alone betrays it as a centuries-long base of operations for the foreign occupying powers 2, who in the course of the mt have alternately ruled and exploited Sardinia. Cagliari was - and still is today - the administrative center of the island. In addition, Sardinia always asked for a strong leadership layer, which could have formed the backbone of the nation. The Sardinian people have seldom practiced a really Sardinian politics, which is still the case today, despite the island's autonomous status. What also makes Sardinia less palatable to the Alguerese is the "image" that the Sardinian has towards the Italians. Sardinia is seen on the continent as a backward area where until recently malaria prevailed and where banditry still prevails today. which the Italians call "i banditi sardi" is at home. The transfer of Italian armed forces and military to Sardinia is just as with the ancient Romans - as Strak. I So '/ .. B. wrote T. BUDRUNI, an ungrateful historian from falguer: "La storia di Alghero e conoscluta a Ilvdlo popolare como un tagllo falso e mistificato da chi ha inteso proporre una visuale" catal mista- del processo storico algherese ». The \ l! Rf.tsser then names the Alguereser.sardi a tutti gli & tti. rermare, senza cadere nel ridicolo. che gli algheresi non sono sardi ma catalani o di origine catalana, quando la quasi totalitit del cognomi del catalano-parlantí esarda, inequivocabilimente sarda! \> VgI. BUDRUNI, TONINO: Breve storia di Alghero. Sassari 1981, The reverse of the medal can be seen in a publication by R. CARIA on falguer, published in the context of a high-quality publication dedicated to Sardinia. One only needs to quote the title of this article '/.U: .1 Catalani da Sardegna'. Somebody thinks Catalanity is a very relevant component of the Algerian minority in Sardinia, even if he in no way denies the "Sardinian" act of the Alguerese. VgI. CARIA, RAFAEL: I catalani di Sardegna. In: BRIGAGLIA, MANuo (ed. ): La Sardegna. Cagliari 1983, Vol. II, Both BUDRUNI and CARIA were committed intellectuals when they wrote this work, both from Algueres and active in two different political parties with a license. 2 Cagliari was founded in the 7th century. BC founded by the Phoniziem. 347

6 348 Josep Marlí i Pérez The Alguereser who does not regard the Sardinian language as his own and rarely speaks it and who has a distinct historical awareness of the city's past role as a bastion of a non-Sardinian occupying power, will have a hard time with the opposition To overcome Sardinians / Algueres in favor of a revindicacive Sardinianism. Despite all this, one must be aware that ralguer has undergone a major structural change in the last forty years, so that the old socio-cultural system is gradually dissolving. Today there are z. For example, young people who, even if they understand the Algerian dialect, can no longer speak it and sometimes even show a negative attitude towards it. And just as the language of Iangsarn disappears, the Algerian homeland consciousness, which is described in this article, also disappears little by little. Summarizing, one can say that ralguer has developed a very strong sense of home, which is based on the ethnocentrically valued Sarde / Alguereser opposition. The origins of this phenomenon can be traced back to the end of the Middle Ages, when the city functioned as a bastion of a foreign power in conquered Sardinia. The strengthening of group awareness thus achieved was clearly in the interests of the Catalan rulers at the time, who needed a reliable and solid base in Sardinia. On the other hand, this strong group consciousness corresponded to the need to protect oneself against a hostile outside world - the rebellious ards. Beyond that, however, the socio-cultural system ralguer, which has emerged in the course of history, had to show a certain degree of OPENness: During his entire Catalan and Spanish time - filing four centuries - CAlguer had great demographic difficulties. Martial conditions, Ibt and harsh living conditions in general have decimated the population continuously. The Sardinian immigration to the city was the solution to maintain the system (and so most of the Farnilien names today are of Raiguer Sardinian origin). The assimilation of these new members into the system required a strict acculturation process. The homeland consciousness so strongly shaped in the cognitive orientation has existed to this day, even if the circumstances that created it have long since disappeared. Today you can still hear from some Algueres: J1Ire kcine Sardinians. "If you ask them why, the answer will be the story of their city; or rather, the part of the story they want to remember.