What is street crime
Not only in the "dark season" that is coming to an end soon Security services and police reinforced with the crime deal with public paths and squares when robberies, break-ins and property damage increase significantly.
GIT-SICHERHEIT.de describes the phenomenon of street crime in connection with the criminal burden of major German cities and puts prevention approaches up for discussion for affected citizens, business people and those responsible in politics and administration.
Under our eyes
As Street crime one denotes all offenses that have a special relation to public roads, streets and squares, i. H. committed in public and where the perpetrator is on the street or in public before, during or after the offense. The density of street crime in a city, district or street determines its attractiveness and residential quality. According to the police crime statistics (PKS) of 2010, typical street crime includes the following offenses:
- assault-like rape and sexual coercion, pimping,
- Assaults on the transport of money and valuables, robbery attacks on drivers,
- Handbag theft, Zechanschluss theft, other attacks in public,
- dangerous and serious bodily harm, breach of the peace,
- willful damage to property and vandalism in public areas.
The PKS reports around 1.5 million cases with a clarification rate of only 18.6%. This does not include the cases of
- Drug crime (approx. 231,000 cases),
- intentional minor bodily harm (approx. 373,000 cases),
- simple and serious theft (2.3 million cases),
- deliberate arson (approx. 13,100 cases) and
- other serious crimes,
most of which also take place under our eyes in public spaces. where, however, no distinction is made between street crime and other forms of crime when recording. In these cases, the crime-specific clarification rates are between 30% for serious theft, 34.9% for deliberate arson, and over 94% for drug and homicides.
City crime with more than 200,000 inhabitants
As far as the registered crime rate in large cities in 2009 and 2010 is concerned, Frankfurt am Main again took the top spot - followed by Berlin, Hanover, Düsseldorf, Cologne and Bremen. With 10% more offenses, Cologne experienced the strongest increase in crime. Munich is the safest metropolis in Germany. The Bavarian capital ranks 68th on the risk list among German cities. The HZ (frequency number) as a common parameter to make the crime levels of individual regions comparable with one another shows the urban-rural divide typical of crime.
While the frequency figures in rural areas are often below the average value of 5,000, the HZ expresses that - from a statistical point of view - e.g. B. in Hesse every 16th inhabitant and in Frankfurt every 6th victim of a crime. It is undisputed that many factors are not taken into account when calculating the HZ, such as the crime and population structure, which is very different in every city due to development and depends on regional characteristics. Yet these are blatant differences that raise questions. Almost 1,000 robberies, 21,553 thefts, 16,591 break-ins and 7,857 property damage are reported in Frankfurt am Main every year. In contrast, street crime in Munich was further reduced compared to the previous year. Street crime there is 16,833 offenses and a decrease of 1.4%, the lowest level since 1987.
Safety measures on streets and squares, for local public transport, for train stations, shopping centers and other publicly accessible areas are of particular importance for the public's sense of security. Crimes such as robberies, sexual assaults, bodily harm, pickpockets, thefts on, from and from motor vehicles, break-ins and vandalism worry people. Many cities and municipalities have already taken measures to improve the quality of living, the attractiveness of shopping centers, underground stations, buses, trains and public spaces. Experience has shown that the following measures can permanently and successfully suppress street crime from certain problem areas and fearful areas:
- Controls and visible presence by police and security services
- increased education about preventive measures
- Target group-oriented criminal police advice for business people, messengers and people at risk,
- clear development,
- technical prevention,
- Video surveillance and lighting,
- Cleanliness, prevention and elimination of graffiti,
- Repression of the drug and alcoholic scene, ban on begging,
- Planting and furnishing
- of streets and squares,
- Increasing the attractiveness for residential complexes, retail and gastronomy,
- Improvement of the willingness to report
- and streamlining law enforcement.
Security in public spaces does not come for free. Require all action depending on the local Security analysis, the use of more staff and more special Security technology.
It is undisputed that a city worth living in, in which everyone feels comfortable, also includes the aspect of safety. Because of this need, many cities have set up local prevention councils in which municipal and police institutions work together. Local prevention has been practiced with different approaches since the mid-1990s. Not only does it need on-site networking, but also supra-regional impetus, which in some cases has had considerable start-up problems. Crime atlases were set up, network purposes were created and urban and socio-structural components were recorded. Safety in public places, streets and means of transport has become an important municipal political task, in which in some cases considerable efforts are made to strengthen the population's subjective feeling of safety.
The effective fight against, repression and insecurity of the perpetrators, changing the circumstances of the crime and educating potential victims is not possible without personnel and technical commitment. In many major German cities, priority and control programs, the use of video technology, the setting up of emergency telephones, the visible presence of the police and security services as well as special campaigns at hot spots and in local public transport have resulted in a significant decrease in street crime. Modern, high-performance, intelligent video technology has made a major contribution to improving security structures at crime hotspots thanks to its spectacular success in investigating the situation and thus making the perpetrators unsettled. The correct use of this technology together with security personnel is sensible and necessary, and also helps retail, hospitality and tourism. Combined security measures involving technology and personnel are also essential in large shopping centers that are publicly accessible private property. The same applies to train stations, subway systems and local public transport. Numerous examples in major German cities show that the right combination of urban planning, technical and personnel measures can sustainably suppress annoying street crime. The fear that these forms of crime will only shift a few street corners has also not been confirmed in most cases. According to the German Forum for Crime Prevention Foundation (DFK), there is no ideal type of organization for municipal crime preventive bodies. However, basic structural principles are:
- Cross-departmental approach
- Citizen participation and the public,
- "Mayor duty".
The establishment of functioning cooperation structures represents one of the greatest challenges for the municipal crime prevention approach. It is important to reconcile the interests, restrictions and logics of different actors with one another. According to the DFK, an early anchoring of prevention as a compulsory planning object in the target-setting, planning and decision-making process of the municipalities offers the possibility of financial savings. The participation of high-ranking representatives from the municipal and police leadership in prevention committees underlines their importance and facilitates the implementation of decisions in the authorities.
Legal issues and data protection in video surveillance
There is no special legal regulation. Sources of law are the Basic Law, the European Data Protection Directive, the Federal Data Protection Act (BDSG), the BGB and labor law. State police laws regulate open video surveillance on public streets and squares. Ten video surveillance systems with a total of 38 cameras are currently in operation in Hesse for video surveillance in accordance with Section 14 (3) of the Hessian Law on Public Safety and Order (HSOG).
This is not the case with "publicly accessible rooms", such as entrance areas, sales rooms, counter halls or public transport. The monitored areas must be clearly indicated with meaningful signs. In addition to the information about the video surveillance, the operator must be specifically named. to exercise his right to information according to § 19 BDSG. Every video surveillance is subject to the principle of necessity, e.g. when exercising house rights or the protection of property. Accordingly, it may only be used if there is a legitimate interest, whereby always the rights of those affected enjoy priority. Video surveillance of publicly accessible rooms according to § 6 b BDSG is, for example, permissible for:
- Fulfillment of tasks by public bodies,
- Exercise of private domiciliary rights and
- Protection of legitimate interests
- for specific purposes.
The purposes must be defined and documented in advance. Important aspects are also data economy and transparency (§ 6 b BDSG). If the data collected by video surveillance can be assigned to a specific person, the person concerned must be notified of a planned processing or use in accordance with §§ 19 a and 33 BDSG. As soon as they have fulfilled their purpose, the collected data must be carefully deleted in accordance with Section 6 b (5) BDSG. Concrete deletion periods are not mentioned. The principle of "necessity" applies. This means that the data can be kept for as long as experience has shown that access to the records is necessary. A retention period of data over a period of four to six months is to be regarded as critical and by Evidence of facts. Monitoring is unlawful:
- without the requirements of § 6 BDSG,
- at the workplace without the consent of the employee representative (Section 87 BetrVerfG),
- the work performance,
- in changing rooms, saunas,
- Washrooms and toilets,
- outside the company premises,
- if so people and vehicles
- can be identified.
Purely private rooms or properties that are not accessible to the public are not affected by the regulations on video surveillance according to § 6 b BDSG. Here the private person has sole decision-making power. Covert video surveillance is strictly forbidden.
Helpful CCTV technology
Video surveillance systems are suitable, among other things. for use at the
- Gate and entrance surveillance, event security,
- Outdoor area and property surveillance, logistics security,
- Property security in museums,
- Galleries, exhibitions,
- Monitoring of financial institutions and ATMs,
- Securing petrol stations,
- Sports facilities, theaters,
- Wholesale and retail theft surveillance,
- Surveillance of crime hotspots,
- Monitoring for data and environmental protection,
- Surveillance in local public transport,
- Traffic, parking lot and parking garage monitoring,
- Airports and seaports, train stations,
- Fire Prevention
- and early fire detection.
The industry offers a wide and technically mature range of applications, techniques and installation options, such as B .:
- static or swiveling, with zoom,
- adjustable privacy masks,
- for indoor and outdoor use,
- protected against vandalism and weather,
- with intelligent video sensors,
- with object recognition and recording,
- in day and night use,
- Thermal image, perimeter detection,
- discreet, concealed or open,
- digital, wireless, high resolution.
Intelligent and flexible control center and video management solutions can also meet a large number of property-specific requirements such as monitoring, alarming, transmission, documentation and communication. Before using CCTV technology, the following should be clarified:
- Which recordings are required when and where?
- Who and what should be monitored (people, things, processes, traffic flow, conditions)?
- Are the recordings and recordings legally permissible?
- What kind of central and special technology, such as recorders, printers, sensors, switching units or intelligent systems should be used?
- Which property-specific conditions and security requirements have to be taken into account?
- How many cameras are safely positioned where?
- With or without remote control or additional lighting?
- How is the image transmission carried out (cable, radio, over IP, never via WLAN)?
- Which observation and operator stations are required?
Project planning, assembly, maintenance and service should only be carried out by installers recommended by the BHE, VdS or the police advice centers. If used correctly and if the applicable laws are observed, modern video surveillance systems serve security in a variety of ways, because they prevent criminal offenses and accidents, they help to clarify legal violations and protect people and property. The cost-benefit factor is exemplary. They measurably increase safety in daily life through flexible types of use, diverse transmission and documentation options in all corporate, private and especially in public and publicly accessible areas.
Burglary protection through technology
The principle is: secure all around evenly and make the thieves' work as difficult as possible! Over a third of the burglars abandon their plans in view of the well-secured doors and windows. In 80% of break-ins into single-family houses, windows as well as patio and balcony doors are broken into. Against the most common type of break-in, the levering out of the window sash, window fittings with mushroom cams should be installed, because the tenons claw with their counterpart due to their T-shape. Doors of resistance class WK 2 according to DIN V ENV 1627 or class ET 1 according to DIN V 18103 offer good burglary protection.Cylinder locks should correspond to resistance class PZ 2 or PZ 3 according to DIN 18252 or DIN V 18254 and must be equipped with protective fittings and pulling protection . Burglar alarm systems (EMA) in combination with appropriate mechanical security measures and secured intervention offer a very good protective effect against destructive, damaging effects of third parties on people, property and information. The installers of EMA should provide the following evidence or meet requirements:
- Recognition by VdS Schadenverhütung GmbH or an equivalent certificate,
- Willingness to do the maintenance after
- To adopt DIN VDE 0833,
- EMA / components should in principle
- be recognized by the VdS loss prevention for class C and
- recommended installer of the local
- Police advice center.
No success without staff
All forms of street crime can be prevented and fought particularly effectively if qualified security personnel or the police are visible on site, if controls and city strips are carried out and, in the event of a malfunction, action is taken consistently without delay. Depending on the disturbance, criminal offense, location and type of forces deployed, civil or criminal law or criminal procedural measures can then be carried out and / and house bans or dismissals issued. Additional workers should also have short intervention times at the focal points of these street crimes. Special police units are effective. B.be used to combat robbery, trickery and pickpocketing, drug trafficking and vandalism. A cooperation between private security service providers with police and law enforcement agencies is useful and effective.
The police advise
In addition to technical and personal measures in places with a high crime rate, residents, visitors and business people in large cities with a special focus on crime should recognize risks, report disruptions, criminal offenses and to protect themselves against robberies, break-ins, bag and trick thefts individually from experts from the police advice centers via technical Get advice on safety measures and behavioral prevention. The phenomenon of street crime is tradable - but not for free!
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